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Plos Biology : Hotspots of Biased Nucleotide Substitutions in Huma...

By: Laurence D. Hurst

Description : Genes that have experienced accelerated evolutionary rates on the human lineage during recent evolution are candidates for involvement in human-specific adaptations. To determine the forces that cause increased evolutionary rates in certain genes, we analyzed alignments of 10,238 human genes to their orthologues in chimpanzee and macaque. Using a likelihood ratio test, we identified protein-coding sequences with an accelerated rate of base substitutions alo...

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Plos Biology : Conserved and Variable Functions of the Re Stress R...

By: Jonathan A. Eisen

Description : Bacteria often cope with environmental stress by inducing alternative sigma (r) factors, which direct RNA polymerase to specific promoters, thereby inducing a set of genes called a regulon to combat the stress. To understand the conserved and organism-specific functions of each r, it is necessary to be able to predict their promoters, so that their regulons can be followed across species. However, the variability of promoter sequences and motif spacing make...

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Plos Biology : Striking Similarities in Fly and Vertebrate Olfacto...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : the What and Why of Research on Reinforcement, Volume 2

By: Maria R. Servedio
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Plos Biology : Pre-steady-state Decoding of the Bicoid Morphogen G...

By: Alfonso Martinez Arias

Description : Morphogen gradients are established by the localized production and subsequent diffusion of signaling molecules. It is generally assumed that cell fates are induced only after morphogen profiles have reached their steady state. Yet, patterning processes during early development occur rapidly, and tissue patterning may precede the convergence of the gradient to its steady state. Here we consider the implications of pre-steady-state decoding of the Bicoid mor...

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Plos Biology : How Signaling Receptors Meet Their End, Volume 6

By: Mary Hoff
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Plos Biology : Antigen-specific T Cells ; Analyses of the Needles ...

By: Jill E. Slansky
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Plos Biology : Tissue-specific Genetic Control of Splicing ; Impli...

By: Erin L. Heinzen

Description : Numerous genome-wide screens for polymorphisms that influence gene expression have provided key insights into the genetic control of transcription. Despite this work, the relevance of specific polymorphisms to in vivo expression and splicing remains unclear. We carried out the first genome-wide screen, to our knowledge, for SNPs that associate with alternative splicing and gene expression in human primary cells, evaluating 93 autopsy-collected cortical brai...

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Plos Biology : Repression of Smoothened by Patched-dependent Pro-v...

By: Matthew Scott

Description : The developmentally important hedgehog (Hh) pathway is activated by binding of Hh to patched (Ptch1), releasing smoothened (Smo) and the downstream transcription factor glioma associated (Gli) from inhibition. The mechanism behind Ptch1-dependent Smo inhibition remains unresolved. We now show that by mixing Ptch1-transfected and Ptch1 small interfering RNA–transfected cells with Gli reporter cells, Ptch1 is capable of non–cell autonomous repression of Smo. ...

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Plos Biology : Pheromonal and Behavioral Cues Trigger Male-to-fema...

By: Scott Waddell

Description : Appropriate displays of aggression rely on the ability to recognize potential competitors. As in most species, Drosophila males fight with other males and do not attack females. In insects, sex recognition is strongly dependent on chemosensory communication, mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons acting as pheromones. While the roles of chemical and other sensory cues in stimulating male to female courtship have been well characterized in Drosophila, the signal...

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Plos Biology : Evolution of Adaptive Behaviour in Robots by Means ...

By: Dario Floreano
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Plos Biology : Beyond the Fire-hazard Mentality of Medicine ; the ...

By: Jane Bradbury
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Plos Biology : What Killed the Woolly Mammoth, Volume 6

By: Caitlin Sedwick
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Plos Biology : Expressing the Big Picture, Volume 3

By: Hemai Parthasarathy
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Plos Biology : the Influence of Catalysis on Mad2 Activation Dynam...

By: David Pellman

Description : Mad2 is a key component of the spindle assembly checkpoint, a safety device ensuring faithful sister chromatid separation in mitosis. The target of Mad2 is Cdc20, an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/ C). Mad2 binding to Cdc20 is a complex reaction that entails the conformational conversion of Mad2 from an open (OMad2) to a closed (C-Mad2) conformer. Previously, it has been hypothesized that the conversion of O-Mad2 is accelerated b...

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Plos Biology : Sequential Analysis of Trans-snare Formation in Int...

By: Frederick Hughson

Description : SNARE complexes are required for membrane fusion in the endomembrane system. They contain coiled-coil bundles of four helices, three (Qa, Qb, and Qc) from target (t)-SNAREs and one (R) from the vesicular (v)-SNARE. NSF/Sec18 disrupts these cis- SNARE complexes, allowing reassembly of their subunits into trans-SNARE complexes and subsequent fusion. Studying these reactions in native yeast vacuoles, we found that NSF/Sec18 activates the vacuolar cis-SNARE com...

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Plos Biology : Her2 Phosphorylation is Maintained by a Pkb Negativ...

By: Christopher Kemp

Description : Herceptin (trastuzumab) is used in patients with breast cancer who have HER2 (ErbB2)–positive tumours. However, its mechanisms of action and how acquired resistance to Herceptin occurs are still poorly understood. It was previously thought that the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody Herceptin inhibits HER2 signalling, but recent studies have shown that Herceptin does not decrease HER2 phosphorylation. Its failure to abolish HER2 phosphorylation may be a key to w...

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Plos Biology : the Cryo-em Structure of a Complete 30S Translation...

By: Christian Spahn

Description : Formation of the 30S initiation complex (30S IC) is an important checkpoint in regulation of gene expression. The selection of mRNA, correct start codon, and the initiator fMet-tRNAfMet requires the presence of three initiation factors (IF1, IF2, IF3) of which IF3 and IF1 control the fidelity of the process, while IF2 recruits fMet-tRNAfMet. Here we present a cryo-EM reconstruction of the complete 30S IC, containing mRNA, fMet-tRNAfMet, IF1, IF2, and IF3. I...

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Plos Biology : Sakshat Labs ; India’s Virtual Proteomics Initiativ...

By: Jerry L. Workman
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Plos Biology : the Zebrafish Moonshine Gene Encodes Transcriptiona...

By: William Talbot

Description : Hematopoiesis is precisely orchestrated by lineage-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription in concert with coactivators and corepressors. Mutations in the zebrafish moonshine (mon) gene specifically disrupt both embryonic and adult hematopoiesis, resulting in severe red blood cell aplasia. We report that mon encodes the zebrafish ortholog of mammalian transcriptional intermediary factor 1c (TIF1c) (or TRIM33), a member of the TIF1 family o...

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