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Plos Biology : Mechanisms Used for Genomic Proliferation by Thermo...

By: Eugene V. Koonin

Description : Mobile group II introns, which are found in bacterial and organellar genomes, are site-specific retroelments hypothesized to be evolutionary ancestors of spliceosomal introns and retrotransposons in higher organisms. Most bacteria, however, contain no more than one or a few group II introns, making it unclear how introns could have proliferated to higher copy numbers in eukaryotic genomes. An exception is the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus ...

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Plos Biology : when Two is Better Than One ; Elements of Intravita...

By: Piston David W.
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Plos Biology : Aneuploidy and Improved Growth Are Coincident but N...

By: David Pellman

Description : Cancer cells have acquired mutations that alter their growth. Aneuploidy that typify cancer cells are often assumed to contribute to the abnormal growth characteristics. Here we test the idea of a link between aneuploidy and mutations allowing improved growth, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing a mcm4 helicase allele that was shown to cause cancer in mice. Yeast bearing this mcm4 allele are prone to undergoing a ‘‘hypermutable phase’’ characterized b...

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Plos Biology : the Open Knowledge Foundation ; Open Data Means Bet...

By: Public Library of Science (Plos)
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Plos Biology : Pink1 Protects Against Oxidative Stress by Phosphor...

By: Huda Y. Zoghbi

Description : Mutations in the PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson disease (PD). So far, no substrates of PINK1 have been reported, and the mechanism by which PINK1 mutations lead to neurodegeneration is unknown. Here we report the identification of TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), a mitochondrial molecular chaperone also known as heat shock protein 75 (Hsp75), as a cellular substrate for PINK1 kinase. PINK...

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Plos Biology : Systematic Dissection of Roles for Chromatin Regula...

By: Arthur D. Lander

Description : Packaging of eukaryotic genomes into chromatin has wide-ranging effects on gene transcription. Curiously, it is commonly observed that deletion of a global chromatin regulator affects expression of only a limited subset of genes bound to or modified by the regulator in question. However, in many single-gene studies it has become clear that chromatin regulators often do not affect steady-state transcription, but instead are required for normal transcriptiona...

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Plos Biology : Recent Origin and Cultural Reversion of a Hunter–ga...

By: David Penny

Description : Contemporary hunter–gatherer groups are often thought to serve as models of an ancient lifestyle that was typical of human populations prior to the development of agriculture. Patterns of genetic variation in hunter–gatherer groups such as the !Kung and African Pygmies are consistent with this view, as they exhibit low genetic diversity coupled with high frequencies of divergent mtDNA types not found in surrounding agricultural groups, suggesting long-term ...

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Plos Biology : Generation of Active Protein Phosphatase 2A is Coup...

By: Peter Walter

Description : Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a prime example of the multisubunit architecture of protein serine/threonine phosphatases. Until substrate-specific PP2A holoenzymes assemble, a constitutively active, but nonspecific, catalytic C subunit would constitute a risk to the cell. While it has been assumed that the severe proliferation impairment of yeast lacking the structural PP2A subunit, TPD3, is due to the unrestricted activity of the C subunit, we recently o...

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Plos Biology : Rescue of Progeria in Trichothiodystrophy by Homozy...

By: Edison Liu

Description : Although compound heterozygosity, or the presence of two different mutant alleles of the same gene, is common in human recessive disease, its potential to impact disease outcome has not been well documented. This is most likely because of the inherent difficulty in distinguishing specific biallelic effects from differences in environment or genetic background. We addressed the potential of different recessive alleles to contribute to the enigmatic pleiotrop...

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Plos Biology : Rev-erbα Participates in Circadian Srebp Signaling ...

By: Antonio J. Vidal-puig

Description : In mammals, many aspects of behavior and physiology, and in particular cellular metabolism, are coordinated by the circadian timing system. Molecular clocks are thought to rely on negative feedback loops in clock gene expression that engender oscillations in the accumulation of transcriptional regulatory proteins, such as the orphan receptor REV-ERBa. Circadian transcription factors then drive daily rhythms in the expression of clock-controlled output genes...

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Plos Biology : Reinforcing Reinforcement, Volume 8

By: William Mair
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Plos Biology : a Cultural and Natural History of the Fly, Volume 5

By: Andreas Keller
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Plos Biology : Chromosome Cohesion ; a Cycle of Holding Together a...

By: Jennifer Gerton
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Plos Biology : Guidance Receptor Degradation is Required for Neuro...

By: Matthias Landgraf

Description : Axon pathfinding and synapse formation rely on precise spatiotemporal localization of guidance receptors. However, little is known about the neuron-specific intracellular trafficking mechanisms that underlie the sorting and activity of these receptors. Here we show that loss of the neuron-specific v-ATPase subunit a1 leads to progressive endosomal guidance receptor accumulations after neuronal differentiation. In the embryo and in adult photoreceptors, thes...

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Plos Biology : the Light-driven Proton Pump Proteorhodopsin Enhanc...

By: Edward F. Delong
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Plos Biology : Dual Host-virus Arms Races Shape an Essential House...

By: Bill Sugden

Description : Transferrin Receptor (TfR1) is the cell-surface receptor that regulates iron uptake into cells, a process that is fundamental to life. However, TfR1 also facilitates the cellular entry of multiple mammalian viruses. We use evolutionary and functional analyses of TfR1 in the rodent clade, where two families of viruses bind this receptor, to mechanistically dissect how essential housekeeping genes like TFR1 successfully balance the opposing selective pressure...

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Plos Biology : Disease Ecology, Biodiversity, and the Latitudinal ...

By: Terri L. Gilbert

Description : While most of the world is thought to be on long-term economic growth paths, more than one-sixth of the world is roughly as poor today as their ancestors were hundreds of years ago. The majority of the extremely poor live in the tropics. The latitudinal gradient in income is highly suggestive of underlying biophysical drivers, of which disease conditions are an especially salient example. However, conclusions have been confounded by the simultaneous causali...

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Plos Biology : No Evidence of Neandertal Mtdna Contribution to Ear...

By: David Penny

Description : The retrieval of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from four Neandertal fossils from Germany, Russia, and Croatia has demonstrated that these individuals carried closely related mtDNAs that are not found among current humans. However, these results do not definitively resolve the question of a possible Neandertal contribution to the gene pool of modern humans since such a contribution might have been erased by genetic drift or by the continuous influx of ...

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Plos Biology : Iclip Predicts the Dual Splicing Effects of Tia-rna...

By: Tom Misteli

Description : The regulation of alternative splicing involves interactions between RNA-binding proteins and pre-mRNA positions close to the splice sites. T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1) and TIA1-like 1 (TIAL1) locally enhance exon inclusion by recruiting U1 snRNP to 59 splice sites. However, effects of TIA proteins on splicing of distal exons have not yet been explored. We used UV-crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) to find that TIA1 and TIAL1 bind at the ...

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Plos Biology : Rare Species Support Vulnerable Functions in High- ...

By: Georgina M. MacE

Description : Around the world, the human-induced collapses of populations and species have triggered a sixth mass extinction crisis, with rare species often being the first to disappear. Although the role of species diversity in the maintenance of ecosystem processes has been widely investigated, the role of rare species remains controversial. A critical issue is whether common species insure against the loss of functions supported by rare species. This issue is even mo...

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