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Oae 3 – Regional Atlantic Organic Carbon Burial During the Coniaci...

By: M. Wagreich

Description: Department of Geodynamics and Sedimentology, Center for Earth Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria. The Coniacian–Santonian time interval is the inferred time of oceanic anoxic event 3 (OAE 3), the last of the Cretaceous OAEs. A detailed look on the temporal and spatial distribution of organic-rich deposits attributed to OAE 3 suggests that black shale occurrences are restricted to the equatorial to mid-latitudinal Atlantic and adjacent basins, shelve...

Adams, D. D., Hurtgen, M. T., and Sageman, B. B.: Volcanic triggering of a biogeochemical cascade during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2, Nat. Geosci., 3, 201–204, doi:10.1038/NGEO743, 2010.; Arthur, M. A. and Schlanger, S. O.: Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events as causal factors in development of reef-reservoired giant oil fields, Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. B., 63, 870–885, 1979.; Arthur, M. A., Jenkyns, H. C., Brumsack, H. J., and Schlang...

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Astronomical Forcing and Mathematical Theory of Glacial-interglaci...

By: A. V. Kislov

Description: Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia. There are three important features of a proxy time series recorded during the Late Pleistocene. They are: 1) 100 000-year cycle as a dominant control of global glacial-interglacials through the late Quaternary, 2) fluctuations with periods of about 40 and 20 thousand years (their contribution to dispersion is no more than 20%), 3) ''Red-noise'' behavior of the time series. Direct influence of the ...

Anishchenko, V S., Neiman, A B., Moss, F., and Shimansky-Geier, L.: Stochastic resonance: noise-enhanced order, Phys.-Usp, 42, 7–36, 1999.; Benzi, R., Parisi, G., Sutera, A., and Vulpiani, A.: Stochastic resonance in climatic change, Tellus, 34, 10–18, 1982.; Berger, A.: Long-term variations of daily insolation and Quaternary climate changes, J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2362–2367, 1978.; Berger, A., Loutre, M F., and Melice, J L.: Instability of the astronomical periods from 1.5...

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10Be in Late Deglacial Climate Simulated by Echam5-ham – Part 2: I...

By: X. Shi; A. M. Smith; S. J. Phipps; U. Heikkilä

Description: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW, Australia. This study investigates the effect of deglacial climate on the deposition of the solar proxy 10Be globally, and at two specific locations, the GRIP site at Summit, Central Greenland, and the Law Dome site in coastal Antarctica. The deglacial climate is represented by three 30 year time slice simulations of 10 000 BP (years before present = 1950 CE), ...

Beer, J., Blinov, A., Bonani, G., Finkel, R. C., Hofmann, H. J., Lehmann, B., Oeschger, H., Sigg, A., Schwander, J., Staffelbach, T., Stauffer, B., Suter, M., and Wölfli, W.: Use of 10Be in polar ice to trace the 11-year cycle of solar activity, Nature, 347, 164–166, 1990.; Finkel, R. C. and Nishiizumi, K.: Beryllium 10 concentrations in the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core from 3–40 ka, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 26699–26706, 1997.; Beer, J., Baumgartner, S...

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Regional Climate Model Experiments to Investigate the Asian Monsoo...

By: A. Micheels; M. Fortelius; J. Eronen; H. Tang

Description: Department of Geosciences and Geography, P.O. Box 64, 00014, University of Helsinki, Finland. The Late Miocene (11.6–5.3 Ma) is a crucial period in the history of the Asian monsoon. Significant changes in the Asian climate regime have been documented for this period, which saw the formation of the modern Asian monsoon system. However, the spatiotemporal structure of these changes is still ambiguous, and the associated mechanisms are debated. Here, we pre...

Zhang, Z. S., Wang, H. J., Guo, Z. T., and Jiang, D. B.: Impacts of tectonic changes on the reorganization of the Cenozoic paleoclimatic patterns in China, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 257, 622–634, 2007{a}.; Zhang, Z. S., Wang, H. J., Guo, Z. T., and Jiang, D. B.: What triggers the transition of palaeoenvironmental patterns in China, the Tibetan Plateau uplift or the Paratethys Sea retreat?, Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 245, 317–331, 2007{b}.; Zheng, D. W., Zhang, P. Z., Wan, J...

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Abrupt Climate Changes of the Last Deglaciation Detected in a West...

By: M. F. Sanchez Goñi; O. Peyron; I. Dormoy; W. J. Fletcher

Description: Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, UMR 5805 CNRS EPOC, Université Bordeaux 1, Avenue des Facultés, 33405 Talence, France. Evidence for abrupt changes in western Mediterranean climate between 20 and 6 cal ka BP is examined in marine core MD95-2043 (Alborán Sea), using pollen data for temperate Mediterranean forest development and pollen-based climate reconstructions using the modern analogue technique (MAT) for annual precipitation (Pann) and me...

Arévalo Barroso, A.: Atlas Nacional de España, Sección II, Grupo 9, Climatología, Ministerio de Obras P\'ublicas y Transportes, Dirección General del Instituto Geográfico Nacional, Madrid, 1992.; Bard, E., Arnold, M., Maurice, P., Duprat, J., Moyes., J., and Duplessy, J.-C.: Retreat velocity of the North Atlantic polar front during the last deglaciation determined by $^14$C accelerator mass spectrometry, Nature, 328, 791–794, 1987.; Barry, R. G. and Chorley, R. J.: Atmos...

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Changing Correlation Structures of the Northern Hemisphere Atmosph...

By: F. Lehner; L. Fernandez Donado; J. F. Gonzalez Rouco; C. C. Raible

Description: Climate and Environmental Physics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Atmospheric circulation modes are important concepts to understand the variability of atmospheric dynamics. Assuming their spatial patterns to be fixed, such modes are often described by simple indices derived from rather short observational data sets. The increasing length of reanalysis products allows scrutinizing these concepts and assumptions. Here we investigate the stability...

Casty, C., Raible, C. C., Stocker, T. F., Wanner, H., and Luterbacher, J.: European climate pattern variability since 1766, Clim. Dynam., 29, 791–805, 2007.; Barnston, A. G. and Livezey, R. E.: Classification, seasonality and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns, Mon. Weather Rev., 115, 1825–1850, 1987.; Buehler, T., Raible, C. C., and Stocker, T. F.: On the relation of extreme North Atlantic blocking frequencies, cold spells, and droughts in ERA...

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Content Analysis for Agricultural Records of the United Kingdom, A...

By: D. H. Holt

Description: Department of Geography and Geology, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406, USA. A content analysis has been completed on a text from the UK that has gathered agricultural and climate data from the years AD 220 to 1977 from 100s of sources. The content analysis coded all references to climate and agriculture to ascertain which climate events were recorded and which were not. This study addressed the question: is there bias in human re...

Baillie, M. G. L.: Marking in marker dates: towards an archaeology with historical precision, World Archaeol., 23(2), 233–243, 1995.; Baron, W. R.: The reconstruction of eighteenth century temperature records through the use of content analysis, Climatic Change, 4, 385–398, 1982.; Brázdil, R., Dobrovoln\'{y}, P., Luterbacher, J., Moberg, A., Pfister, C., Wheeler, D., and Zorita, E: European climate of the past 500 years: new challenges for historical climatology, Climati...

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Rapid Climatic Variability in the West Mediterranean During the La...

By: O. Peyron; I. Dormoy; U. Kotthoff; F. Marret; N. Combourieu Nebout; S. Desprat; C. Beaudouin

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, UMR 1572 CNRS/CEA/UVSQ, 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France. High-temporal resolution pollen record from the Alboran Sea ODP Site 976, pollen-based quantitative climate reconstruction and biomisation show that changes of Mediterranean vegetation have been clearly modulated by short and long term variability during the last 25 000 years. The reliability of the quantitative climate reconstruction fro...

Watts, W. A., Allen, J. R. M., Huntley, B., and Fritz, S. C.: Vegetation history and climate of the last 15 000 years at Laghi di Monticchio, Southern Italy, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 15, 113–132, 1996.; Wiersma, A. P. and Renssen, H.: Model-data comparison for the 8.2 ka BP event: confirmation of a forcing mechanism by catastrophic drainage of Laurentide Lakes, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 25, 63–88, 2006.; Allen, J. R. M., Huntley, B., and Watts, W. A.: The vegetation and climate...

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Coupled Simulations of the Mid-holocene and Last Glacial Maximum: ...

By: U. Merkel; B. Otto-bliesner; G. Ramstein; S. Harrison; P. Valdes; Y. Zhao; M.-f. Loutre; L. Weber; S. Joussaume; A. Kitoh; O. Marti; C. D. Hewitt; A. Abe-ouchi; J.-y. Peterchmitt; M. Kageyama; P. Braconnot; Y. Yu; M. Crucifix; T. Fichefet

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Unité mixte CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Orme des Merisiers, bât. 712, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France. A set of coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations using state of the art climate models is now available for the Last Glacial Maximum and the mid-Holocene through the second phase of the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP2). This study presents the large scale features of the simulated climate...

Berger, A.: Long-term variations of caloric solar radiation resulting from the earth's orbital elements, Quat. Res., 9, 139–167, 1978.; Bony, S., Colman, R., Kattsov, V. M., Allan, R. P., Bretherton, C. S., Dufresne, J. L., Hall, A., Hallegatte, S., Holland, M. M., Ingram, W., Randall, D. A., Soden, B. J., Tselioudis, G., and Webb, M. J.: How well do we understand and evaluate climate change feedback processes?, J. Climate, 19, 3445–3482, 2006.; Braconnot, P., Joussaume,...

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Climate-human-environment Interactions: Resolving Our Past : Volum...

By: J. A. Dearing

Description: Department of Geography, University of Liverpool, UK. The paper reviews how we can learn from the past about climate-human-interactions at the present time, and in the future. It focuses on data sources for environmental change at local and regional/global spatial scales, and shows the scope and limitations of each. The use of parallel histories in local case-studies is described in a case-study from China, where independent records help unravel the com...

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Comparing Past Accumulation Rate Reconstructions in East Antarctic...

By: G. M. Raisbeck; J. Jouzel; A. Landais; E. Bard; L. Bazin; Aster Team; J.-y. Peterschmitt; M. Kageyama; A. Cauquoin; M. Werner

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ), CEA Saclay Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Ice cores are exceptional archives which allow us to reconstruct a wealth of climatic parameters as well as past atmospheric composition over the last 800 kyr in Antarctica. Inferring the variations in past accumulation rate in polar regions is essential both for documenting past climate and for ice core ch...

Petit, J. R., Jouzel, J., Raynaud, D., Barkov, N. I., Barnola, J.-M., Basile, I., Bender, M., Chappellaz, J., Davis, M., Delaygue, G., Delmotte, M., Kotlyakov, V. M., Legrand, M., Lipenkov, V. Y., Lorius, C., Pépin, L., Ritz, C., Saltzman, E., and Stievenard, M.: Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica, Nature, 399, 429–436, doi:10.1038/20859, 1999.; Raisbeck, G. M., Yiou, ...

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On the Variability of Return Periods of European Winter Precipitat...

By: H. Paeth; A. Pauling

Description: Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Hallerstrasse 12, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. We investigate the changes of extreme European winter (December-February) precipitation back to 1700 and show for various European regions that return periods of extremely wet and dry winters are subject to significant changes both before and after the onset of anthropogenic influences. Generally, winter precipitation has become more extreme. We also examine the spatial...

Brönnimann, S. and Luterbacher, J.: Reconstructing Northern Hemisphere upper-level fields during World War II, Clim. Dynam., 22, 499–510, 2004.; Casty, C., Wanner, H., Luterbacher, J., Esper, J., and Böhm, R.: Temperature and precipitation variability in the European Alps since 1500, Int. J. Climatol., 25, 1855/1880, doi:10.1002/joc1216, 2005.; Dunn, P. K.: Occurrence and quantity of precipitation can be modelled simultaneously, Int. J. Climatol., 24, 1231–1239, 2004.; C...

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Late Weichselian and Holocene Paleoceanography of Storfjordrenna, ...

By: M. Forwick; M. Zajączkowski; W. Szczuciński; M. Łącka

Description: Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot, Poland. Multiproxy analyses (incl. benthic and planktonic foraminifera, δ18O and δ13C records, grain-size distribution, ice-rafted debris, XRF geochemistry and magnetic susceptibility) were performed on a 14C dated marine sediment core from Storfjordrenna, off southern Svalbard. The sediments in the core cover th...

Aagaard, K., Foldvik, A., and Hillman, S.: The West Spitsbergen Current: disposition and water mass transformation, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 3778–3784, 1987.; Akimova, A., Schauer, U., Danilov, S., and Núòez-Riboni, I.: The role of the deep mixing in the Storfjorden shelf water plume, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 58, 403–414, 2011.; Alley, R.: The younger Dryas cold interval as viewed from central Greenland, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 19, 213–226, 2000.; Alley, R. B. and Augustdottir, A...

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Scaling Laws for Perturbations in the Ocean–atmosphere System Foll...

By: P. Olson; A. Gnanadesikan; N. Towles

Description: Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. Scaling relationships are derived for the perturbations to atmosphere and ocean variables from large transient CO2 emissions. Using the carbon cycle model LOSCAR (Zeebe et al., 2009; Zeebe, 2012b) we calculate perturbations to atmosphere temperature and total carbon, ocean temperature, total ocean carbon, pH, and alkalinity, marine sediment ca...

Archer, D., Eby, M., Brovkin, V., Ridgwell, A., Cao, L., Mikolajewicz, U., and Caldeira, K., Matsumoto, K., Munhoven, G., Montenegro, A., and Tokos, K.: Atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel carbon dioxide, Annu. Rev. Earth Pl. Sc., 37, 117–134, 2009.; Berner, R. A. and Caldeira, K.: The need for mass balance and feedback in the geochemical carbon cycle, Geology, 25, 955–956, 1997.; Berner, R. A. and Kothavala, Z.: GEOCARB III: a revised model of atmospheric CO2...

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Glacial Climate Sensitivity to Different States of the Atlantic Me...

By: D. Swingedouw; J. Mignot; O. Marti; M. Kageyama; R. Alkama; C. Marzin

Description: LSCE/IPSL, UMR CEA-CNRS-UVSQ 1572, CE Saclay, L'Orme des Merisiers, Bât. 701, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France. Numerous records from the North Atlantic and the surrounding continents have shown rapid and large amplitude climate variability during the last glacial period. This variability has often been associated to changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Rapid climate change on the same time scales has also been reconstruct...

Berger, A. L.: Long-term variations of daily insolation and {Q}uaternary climatic changes, J. Atmos. Sci., 35, 2362–2367, 1978.; Alkama, R., Kageyama, M., Ramstein, G., Marti, O., Ribstein, P., and Swingedouw, D.: Impact of a realistic river routing in coupled ocean�atmosphere simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum climate, Clim. Dynam., 30, 855–869, 2008.; Bjerknes, J.: Atlantic air-sea interaction, Academic Press, 10, 1–82, 1964.; Altabet, M. A., Higginson, M. J., and...

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Past Environmental and Climatic Changes During the Last 7200 Cal Y...

By: C. Favier; I. Bentaleb; C. Martin; P. Giresse; S. Bietrix; V. F. Nguetsop; S. Servant-vildary; M. Servant

Description: University of Dschang, Department of Plant Biology, P.O. Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon. Past limnological conditions of Lake Mbalang (7°19′ N, 13°44′ E, altitude: 1130 m) and vegetation type were reconstructed from diatoms and sedimentary stable carbon isotope records (Δ13C) since 7200 cal yr BP. The data showed that before 3600 cal yr BP, the water column was dominantly stable except around 5000–5300 cal yr BP where diatoms evidenced a mixed up...

Adkins, J., de Menocal, P., and Eshel, G.: The African Humid period and the record of marine upwelling from excess 230Th in Ocean Drilling Program Hole 658C, Paleoceanography, 21, PA4203, doi:10.1029/2005PA001200, 2006.; Aleman, J., Leys, B., Apema, R., Bentaleb, I., Dubois, M. A., Lamba, B., Lebamba, J., Martin, C., Ngomanda, A., Truc, L., Yangakola, J. M., Favier, C., and Bremond, L:. Reconstructing savanna ...

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Social Vulnerability to Climate in the Little Ice Age?: an Example...

By: R. Brázdil; C. Pfister

Description: Institute of History/NCCR Climate, University of Bern, Unitobler, CH-3000 Bern 9, Switzerland. The paper is oriented on social vulnerability to climate in Switzerland and in the Czech Lands during the early 1770s. Documentary sources of climate related to man-made archives are discussed. Methods of temperature and precipitation reconstruction based on this evidence as well as climate impact analyses are presented. Modelling of Little Ice Age-type Impact...

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Glacial Cycles and Solar Insolation: the Role of Orbital, Seasonal...

By: K. Juselius; R. K. Kaufmann

Description: Boston University, Boston, USA. We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to evaluate the relative roles that orbital, seasonal, and spatial variations in solar insolation play in glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390kyr – present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that variations in solar insolation associated with change...

Adhemar, J.: Revolutions de la Mer: Deluges periodiques, Carillian-Geeury et V. Dalmont, Paris, 1842.; Bender, M.: Climate-biosphere interactions on glacial-interglacial timescales, Global Biogeoch. Cy., 17, 1–10, 2003.; Caillon, N., Severinghaus, J. P., Jouzel, J., Barnola, J.-M., Kang, J., and Lipenkov, V. Y.: Timing of Atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic Temperature Changes Across Termination III, Science, 299, 1728–1731, 2003.; Croll, J.: Climate and Times in Th...

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Constructing Proxy-record Age Models (Copra) : Volume 8, Issue 3 (...

By: J. U. L. Baldini; B. Goswami; S. F. M. Breitenbach; H. Cheng; K. Prufer; J. Kurths; K. Rehfeld; V. J. Polyak; V. V. Aquino; H. E. Ridley; D. Kennett; N. Marwan; Y. Asmerom

Description: Geological Institute, Department of Earth Sciences, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland. Reliable age models are fundamental for any palaeoclimate reconstruction. Interpolation procedures between age control points are often inadequately reported, and available modeling algorithms do not allow incorporation of layer counted intervals to improve the confidence limits of the age model in question. We present a modeling approach that allows automatic...

Blaauw, M.: Methods and code for classical age-modelling of radiocarbon sequences, Quat. Geochronol., 5, 512–518, 2010.; Blaauw, M., Christen, J. A., Mauquoy, D., van der Plicht, J., and Bennett, K. D.: Testing the timing of radiocarbon-dated events between proxy archives, Holocene, 17, 283–288, 2007.; Bronk Ramsey, C.: Deposition models for chronological records, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 27, 42–60, 2008.; Bronk Ramsey, C.: Dealing with outliers and offsets in radiocarbon d...

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Simulated Climate Variability in the Region of Rapa Nui During the...

By: C. Junk; M. Claussen

Description: Meteorological Institute, University Hamburg, KlimaCampus, Hamburg, Germany. Rapa Nui, an isolated island in the Southeast Pacific, was settled by the Polynesians most likely around 1200 AD and was discovered by the Europeans in 1722 AD. While the Polynesians presumably found a profuse palm woodland on Rapa Nui, the Europeans faced a landscape dominated by grassland. Scientists have examined potential anthropogenic, biological and cli...

Allen, M. S.: New Ideas about Late Holocene Climate Variability in the Central Pacific, Curr. Anthropol., 47(3), 521–535, 2006.; Ammann, C., Joos, F., Schimel, D., Otto-Bliesner, B., and Tomas, R.: Solar influence on climate during the past millennium: Results from transient simulations with the NCAR Climate System Model, P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 104, 3713–3718, 2007.; Andersson, A., Bakan, S., Fennig, K., Grassl, H., Klepp, C.-P., and Schulz, J.: Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Pa...

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