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John Hunt, Baron Hunt

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John Hunt, Baron Hunt

The Rt. Hon. The Lord Hunt
Birth name Henry Cecil John Hunt
Born (1914-05-28)28 May 1914
Shimla British Raj (now Shimla, India)
Died 11 December 1996(1996-12-11) (aged 82)
Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire, England, United Kingdom
Allegiance  United Kingdom
Service/branch  British Army
Years of service 1930–1956
Rank Brigadier
Battles/wars World War II
Awards Commander of the Order of the British Empire
Distinguished Service Order
Other work Mountaineer

Brigadier Henry Cecil John Hunt, Baron Hunt, KG, CBE, DSO, PC (22 June 1910 – 7 November 1998) was a British army officer who is best known as the leader of the successful 1953 British Expedition to Mount Everest.

Contents

  • Early life and career 1
  • Second World War 2
  • Mount Everest 3
  • Later life 4
  • See also 5
  • Bibliography 6
  • References 7

Early life and career

Hunt was born in Simla, British India on 22 June 1910, the son of Captain Cecil Edwin Hunt MC, of the Indian Army,[1] and a great-great-nephew of the explorer Sir Richard Burton. His father was killed in action during the First World War.[2] As a child, Hunt, from the age of 10, spent much holiday time in the Alps, learning some of the mountaineering skills he would later hone while taking part in several expeditions in the Himalayas while serving in India. He made a guided ascent of Piz Palu at 14. He was educated at Marlborough College, Wiltshire, and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, where he was awarded the King's Gold Medal and the Anson Memorial Sword.[1]

After Sandhurst, Hunt was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the King's Royal Rifle Corps (KRRC) in 1930.[3] In 1931, the regiment was posted to India.[1] He was promoted lieutenant in 1933.[4] Despite his background he seems not to have been entirely comfortable with the prevailing social climate of the Raj. He preferred Rugby to Polo, and having already gained fluency in German and French he added Urdu and some Bengali.[1] In 1934 he became a Military Intelligence officer in the Indian Army, with the local rank of captain,[5][6] and was seconded to the Indian police.[1] At this time the Indian independence movement was gaining ground, and Bengal was particularly affected. Hunt even worked undercover, gathering intelligence in Chittagong whilst dressed in Indian clothing.[1] He returned to his regiment in 1935,[7] having been awarded the Indian police medal.[1]

Throughout this period Hunt continued to climb in the Himalayas. In 1935, with James Waller's group, he attempted Saltoro Kangri, reaching 24,500 feet (7,470 m).[1] This exploit led to his election to the Alpine Club and the Royal Geographical Society. He applied to join the 1936 Everest Expedition, but was turned down when an RAF medical discovered a minor heart problem. He married Joy Mowbray-Green on 3 September 1936, and she also took part (along with Reggie Cooke), in Hunt's 1937 Himalayan trip which included reconnaissance of Kangchenjunga, the south-western summit of Nepal Peak, and only the third ascent of the Zemu Gap, between Kangchenjunga and Simvo. Here they saw tracks that one of the party's Sherpas told them were those of the Yeti.[1] 1938 saw a further period of secondment to Military Intelligence,[8][9] and promotion to substantive captain.[10]

Second World War

Upon returning to the United Kingdom in 1940, Hunt became chief instructor at the Commando Mountain and Snow Warfare School, reconnaissance patrols deep behind enemy lines.[1][11][12] In October 1944 his battalion was transferred to Greece, just as the tensions that would lead to the Greek Civil War were becoming evident. In Greece he was appointed temporary brigadier and given command of the 11th Indian Infantry Brigade at Patras. He described attempting to keep the peace between the various factions as, "the most tense and difficult period in all my experience, before or since"[1] For his efforts there he was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in June 1945.[1][13] In contrast to Italy, he was ordered not to take the initiative, and had to cope with large hostile forces threatening him, and infiltration by armed civilians and increasing numbers of insults to his troops. He kept the situation calm, and when finally allowed to act, and reinforced he planned and executed a successful operation.[14] He then attended Staff College in 1946, followed by various staff appointments in the Middle East and Europe.[1] He was granted the substantive rank of major in 1946,[15] and substantive colonel in 1952.[16]

Mount Everest

Hunt was employed on the staff at Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) when he received the surprise invitation to lead the 1953 British Mount Everest expedition. It had been expected that Eric Shipton would lead the expedition, as he had led the (unsuccessful) British attempt on Cho Oyu the previous year from which the majority of the climbers were drawn. However, the Joint Himalayan Committee of the Alpine Club and Royal Geographic Society which oversaw British attempts on Everest decided that Hunt's military leadership experience and undoubted climbing credentials would provide the best hope for success. It was felt to be critical that this expedition should be successful as the French had permission to mount an expedition in 1954 and the Swiss in 1955, meaning that the British would not have another opportunity until 1956 at the earliest.[1]

Many members of the expedition felt a strong loyalty to Shipton, and were unhappy with his replacement. Edmund Hillary was one of those most opposed to the change, but was soon won round by Hunt's personality and frank admission that the change had been badly handled.[17]

Non-profit organization positions
New title Director of the Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme
1956-1966
Succeeded by
Alfred Blake
Academic offices
Preceded by
Peter Scott
Rector of the University of Aberdeen
1963–1966
Succeeded by
Frank George Thomson
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r  
  2. ^ "Casualty details—Hunt, Cecil Edwin".  
  3. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33575. pp. 651–652. 31 January 1930. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  4. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33907. p. 673. 31 January 1933. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  5. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34031. p. 1607. 9 March 1934. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  6. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34159. p. 3053. 10 May 1935. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  7. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34168. p. 3712. 10 May 1935. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  8. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34497. p. 2087. 29 March 1938. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34502. p. 2528. 15 April 1938. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  10. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 34538. pp. 5028–5032. 5 August 1938. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  11. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36637. p. 3603. 1 August 1944. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  12. ^ Piece details WO 373/7, The National Archives contains the recommendation for the DSO, which can be downloaded (fee payable) from Documents Online, Image details—Hunt, Henry Cecil John. Retrieved 8 April 2008.
  13. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37138. p. 3223. 31 January 1930. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  14. ^ Piece details WO 373/75, The National Archives contains the recommendation for the CBE, which can be downloaded (fee payable) from Documents Online, Image details—Hunt, Henry Cecil John. Retrieved 8 April 2008.
  15. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37635. pp. 3370–3374. 28 June 1946. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  16. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 39447. p. 503. 22 January 1952. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  17. ^  
  18. ^ Conefrey, Mick (2012). Everest 1953: The Epic Story of the First Ascent. OneWorld Publications. pp. 184 & 205.  
  19. ^ "Mount Everest Expedition 1953". Imaging Everest.  
  20. ^ The London Gazette: no. 39886. p. 3273. 12 June 1953. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  21. ^ The London Gazette: no. 39915. p. 3928. 17 July 1953. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  22. ^ Jenkins, Mark C (25 April 2003). "Archive: Eisenhower Meets with Hillary".  
  23. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 40811. p. 3649. 19 June 1956. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  24. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 44619. p. 7075. 21 June 1968. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  25. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 44004. p. 6529. 3 June 1966. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  26. ^ The London Gazette: no. 44045. p. 7567. 5 July 1966. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  27. ^ "Report of the Advisory Committee on Police in Northern Ireland".  
  28. ^ The London Gazette: no. 46376. pp. 9192–9193. 17 October 1974. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  29. ^ The London Gazette: no. 47826. p. 5401. 24 April 1979. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
  30. ^ White, Stephen (9 November 1998). "Everest hero dies aged 88". The Mirror. Retrieved 31 May 2013. 

References

  • Hunt, John. The Ascent of Everest (am. The Conquest of Everest). Mountaineers' Books. 1953. ISBN 0-89886-361-9

Bibliography

See also

Hunt returned to active duty in the army, being posted as assistant commandant of Sandhurst. Following his retirement from the army in 1956, when he was granted the honorary rank of brigadier,[23][24] he became the first Director of the Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme, a post he held for ten years.[1] In the 1966 Queen's Birthday Honours he was made a life peer for his work with young people.[25] His title was gazetted as Baron Hunt, of Llanfair Waterdine in Shropshire.[26] He also became the first Chairman of the Parole Board, and his advisory work on policing in Northern Ireland led to the Hunt Report with its recommendation for the disbanding of the B-Specials and creation of a purely military reserve force, which was created as the Ulster Defence Regiment.[1][27] In 1974 he was appointed to the Royal Commission on the Press.[28] He was created a Knight of the Garter in 1979.[29] Lord Hunt died on 8 November 1998 aged 88 in Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire.[30]

Hunt pictured in the Caucasus, 1958

Later life

[1] universities.London, and Durham, Aberdeen; and honorary degrees from Royal Central Asian Society medal of the Lawrence of the Royal Geographical Society; the Founder's Medal the [22] News of the expedition's success reached

[19]

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