World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Ben Franklin effect

Article Id: WHEBN0008733398
Reproduction Date:

Title: Ben Franklin effect  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Benjamin Franklin, Cognitive biases, Marketing, Nice guy, Social psychology
Collection: Attitude Change, Benjamin Franklin, Cognition, Cognitive Biases, Marketing, Motivational Theories, Social Psychology
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Ben Franklin effect

The eponym of the effect, Benjamin Franklin

The Ben Franklin effect is a proposed psychological phenomenon: A person who has done or completed a favor for someone is more likely to do another favor for that person than they would be if they had received a favor from that person. Similarly, one who harms another is more willing to harm them again than the victim is to retaliate.[1]

Contents

  • Recognition of effect by Franklin 1
  • Effect as an example of cognitive dissonance 2
  • See also 3
  • Notes 4
  • Further reading 5

Recognition of effect by Franklin

In the words of Benjamin Franklin, who famously observed the effect and for whom it is named, "He that has once done you a kindness will be more ready to do you another, than he whom you yourself have obliged."[2]

In his autobiography, Franklin explains how he dealt with the animosity of a rival legislator when he served in the Pennsylvania legislature in the 18th century:

Having heard that he had in his library a certain very scarce and curious book, I wrote a note to him, expressing my desire of perusing that book, and requesting he would do me the favour of lending it to me for a few days. He sent it immediately, and I return'd it in about a week with another note, expressing strongly my sense of the favour. When we next met in the House, he spoke to me (which he had never done before), and with great civility; and he ever after manifested a readiness to serve me on all occasions, so that we became great friends, and our friendship continued to his death.

Nelson Mandela restated the principle more broadly in Long Walk to Freedom as follows: "If you want to make peace with your enemy, you have to work with your enemy. Then he becomes your partner."[3]

Effect as an example of cognitive dissonance

This perception of Franklin has been cited as an example within cognitive dissonance theory, which says that people change their attitudes or behavior to resolve tensions, or "dissonance," between their thoughts, attitudes, and actions. In the case of the Ben Franklin effect, the dissonance is between the subject's negative attitudes to the other person and the knowledge that they did that person a favor.[4][5]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ A more detailed explanation appears at the page on the Ben Franklin effect at changingminds.org.
  2. ^ From The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, as given in Benjamin Franklin: Writings, ed. J.A. Leo Lemay (NY: Library of America, 1987), p. 1404. ISBN 0-940450-29-1.
  3. ^ Wikiquote
  4. ^ Paul Henry Mussen, Mark R. Rosenzweig & Arthur L. Blumenthal (1979). Psychology: an introduction, p.403. University of Michigan. ISBN 0-669-01672-1
  5. ^ Tavris, Carol; Elliot Aronson (2008).  

Further reading

  • Jecker, John; David Landy (1969). "Liking a Person as a Function of Doing Him a Favor". Human Relations 22 (4): 371–378.  
  • Schopler, John; Compere, John S. (1971). "Effects of being kind or harsh to another on liking.". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 20 (2): 155–159.  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.