World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Liability (accounting)

Article Id: WHEBN0020938553
Reproduction Date:

Title: Liability (accounting)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Bobby Orr, Balance sheet, Index of accounting articles, Wealth, Factoring (finance), Tama Toshi Monorail Line, Japan Railways Group, Distribution of wealth, Prepaid mobile phone, Inside money
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Liability (accounting)

In financial accounting, a liability is defined as an obligation of an entity arising from past transactions or events, the settlement of which may result in the transfer or use of assets, provision of services or other yielding of economic benefits in the future.

A liability is defined by the following characteristics:

  • Any type of borrowing from persons or banks for improving a business or personal income that is payable during short or long time;
  • A duty or responsibility to others that entails settlement by future transfer or use of assets, provision of services, or other transaction yielding an economic benefit, at a specified or determinable date, on occurrence of a specified event, or on demand;
  • A duty or responsibility that obligates the entity to another, leaving it little or no discretion to avoid settlement; and,
  • A transaction or event obligating the entity that has already occurred.

Liabilities in financial accounting need not be legally enforceable; but can be based on equitable obligations or constructive obligations. An equitable obligation is a duty based on ethical or moral considerations. A constructive obligation is an obligation that is implied by a set of circumstances in a particular situation, as opposed to a contractually based obligation.

The accounting equation relates assets, liabilities, and owner's equity:

\text{Assets} = \text{Liabilities} + \text{Owner's Equity}

The accounting equation is the mathematical structure of the balance sheet.

Probably the most accepted accounting definition of liability is the one used by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). The following is a quotation from IFRS Framework:

Regulations as to the recognition of liabilities are different all over the world, but are roughly similar to those of the IASB.

Examples of types of liabilities include: money owing on a loan, money owing on a mortgage, or an IOU.

Liabilites of sectors of USA economy, 1945-2009, based on flow of funds statistics of the Federal Reserve System.

Liabilities are debts and obligations of the business they represent as creditor's claim on business assets.

Examples

  1. saving accounts
  2. Notes Payable
  3. Accounts Payable
  4. Salaries Payable
  5. Wages Payable
  6. Interest Payable
  7. Other Accrued Expenses Payable
  8. Income Taxes Payable
  9. Customer Deposits
  10. Warranty Liability
  11. Lawsuits Payable
  12. Unearned Revenues
  13. Bonds Payable[1]

Classification

Liabilities are reported on a balance sheet and are usually divided into two categories:

Liabilities of uncertain value or timing are called provisions.

Example

Money deposited with a bank becomes a liability of the bank, because the bank has an obligation to pay the depositor the money deposited; usually on demand. The money deposited is an asset for the depositor. (The bank will record an ASSET when money is deposited, and their double-entry accounting correspondingly records an equal LIABILITY since the bank doesn't own the ASSET.)

A debit increases an asset; and a credit decreases an asset. A debit decreases a liability; and credit increases a liability.

When a bank receives a deposit it credits a liability account called "deposits" and debits the depositor's bank account for the same amount (the bank's "deposits" account is the sum of all of the amounts credited to all of its customer's individual bank accounts). A deposit received by a bank is credited because the bank's liability to its customer, the depositor, increases. When a bank informs its depositor that it has debited the depositor's bank account, it means that the depositor's bank account has been increased by the amount debited.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.accountingcoach.com/balance-sheet/explanation/2. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.