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List of World Heritage Sites in Eastern Europe

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Title: List of World Heritage Sites in Eastern Europe  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of World Heritage Sites in Northern Europe, List of World Heritage Sites in Northern and Central Asia, Lists of World Heritage Sites, List of World Heritage Sites in Slovakia, List of World Heritage Sites in Bulgaria
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List of World Heritage Sites in Eastern Europe

The Azerbaijan are not included here but in Western Asia.[2]

Russia is home to the most inscribed sites with 17 sites, two of which are transborder properties. Seven sites are shared between several countries with some of them located partially in Northern or Western Europe: the Curonian Spit (Lithuania and Russia), Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst (Slovakia and Hungary), Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany (Germany, Slovakia, Ukraine), Belovezhskaya Pushcha / Białowieża Forest (Poland and Belarus), Fertö / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape (Austria and Hungary), Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski (Germany and Poland) and the Struve Geodetic Arc (ten countries in Northern and Eastern Europe). Moldova has only part of the Struve Geodetic Arc transborder site.[3] The first sites from the region were inscribed in 1978, when Cracow's Historic Centre and the Wieliczka Salt Mine, both in Poland were chosen during the list's conception.[4][5] Each year, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee may inscribe new sites on the list, or delist sites that that no longer meet the criteria. Selection is based on ten criteria: six for cultural heritage (i–vi) and four for natural heritage (vii–x).[6] Some sites, designated "mixed sites," represent both cultural and natural heritage. In Eastern Europe, there are 69 cultural, 8 natural, and no mixed sites.[3]

The World Heritage Committee may also specify that a site is endangered, citing "conditions which threaten the very characteristics for which a property was inscribed on the World Heritage List." None of the sites in Eastern Europe is currently listed as endangered; two sites, Wieliczka Salt Mine and the Srebarna Nature Reserve, have formerly been listed as endangered but lost this status subsequently; possible danger listing has been considered by UNESCO in a number of cases.[7][8]

Legend

The table is sortable by column by clicking on the at the top of the appropriate column; alphanumerically for the Site, Area, and Year columns; by state party for the Location column; and by criteria type for the Criteria column. Transborder sites sort at the bottom.

Site; named after the World Heritage Committee's official designation[3]
Location; at city, regional, or provincial level and geocoordinates
Criteria; as defined by the World Heritage Committee[6]
Area; in hectares and acres. If available, the size of the buffer zone has been noted as well. A value of zero implies that no data has been published by UNESCO
Year; during which the site was inscribed to the World Heritage List
Description; brief information about the site, including reasons for qualifying as an endangered site, if applicable

Inscribed sites

  * Trans-border site
Site Image Location Criteria Area
ha (acre)
Year Description Refs
Ancient City of Nessebar Nesebar, Burgas Province,  Bulgaria
Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
700127000000000000027 (67); buffer zone 1,246 (3,080) 1983 [9]
Ancient City of Tauric Chersonese and its Chora Crimea,  Ukraine
Cultural:
(ii), (v)
7002259000000000000259 (640); buffer zone 3,041 (7,510) 2013 [10]
Architectural Ensemble of the Trinity Sergius Lavra in Sergiev Posad Sergiyev Posad, Moscow Oblast,  Russia
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
1993 This is a fine example of a working Orthodox monastery, with military features that are typical of the 15th to the 18th century, the period during which it developed. The main church of the Lavra, the Cathedral of the Assumption (echoing the Kremlin Cathedral of the same name), contains the tomb of Boris Godunov. Among the treasures of the Lavra is the famous icon, The Trinity, by Andrei Rublev. [11]
Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh Nesvizh, Minsk Region,  Belarus
Cultural:
(ii), (iv), (vi)
2005 [12]
Auschwitz Birkenau, German Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camp (1940–1945) Oświęcim County, Lesser Poland,  Poland
Cultural:
(vi)
1979 Auschwitz was a network of Nazi concentration and extermination camps built and operated by the Third Reich in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany during World War II. It was the largest of the German concentration camps, consisting of Auschwitz I (the Stammlager or base camp); Auschwitz II–Birkenau (the Vernichtungslager or extermination camp); Auschwitz III–Monowitz, also known as Buna–Monowitz (a labor camp); and 45 satellite camps. [13][14]
Bardejov Bardejov, Bardejov District, Prešov Region,  Slovakia
Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
2000 [15]
Belovezhskaya Pushcha / Białowieża Forest Grodno Region,  Belarus* and Podlaskie Voivodeship,  Poland*
Natural:
(vii)
700492669000000000092,669 (228,990) 1979[nb 1] [16]
Boyana Church Boyana, Sofia,  Bulgaria
Cultural:
(ii), (iii)
69996800000000000000.68 (1.7); buffer zone 14 (35) 1979 [17]
Budapest, including the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter and Andrássy Avenue Budapest,  Hungary
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
7002473000000000000473 (1,170); buffer zone 494 (1,220) 1987[nb 2] [18]
Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork Malbork, Pomeranian Voivodeship,  Poland
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
700118000000000000018 (44) 1997 The Castle in Malbork was built in Prussia by the Teutonic Knights, a German Roman Catholic religious order of crusaders, in a form of an Ordensburg fortress. The Order named it Marienburg (Mary's Castle). The town which grew around it was also named Marienburg. The castle is a classic example of a medieval fortress, and on its completion in 1406 was the world's largest brick Gothic castle. [19]
Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst Rožňava and Spišská Nová Ves Districts, Košice Region  Slovakia* and Northern Hungary,  Hungary*
Natural:
(vii)
700456651000000000056,651 (139,990); buffer zone 86,797 (214,480) 1995[nb 3] [20][21]
Centennial Hall in Wrocław Wrocław, Lower Silesian Voivodeship,  Poland
Cultural:
(i), (ii), (iv)
700137000000000000037 (91); buffer zone 190 (470) 2006 [22]
Church of the Ascension, Kolomenskoye Kolomenskoye, Moscow,  Russia
Cultural:
(ii)
1994 The Church of the Ascension was built in 1532 on the imperial estate of Kolomenskoye, near Moscow, to celebrate the birth of the prince who was to become Tsar Ivan IV ('the Terrible'). One of the earliest examples of a traditional wooden tent-roofed church on a stone and brick substructure, it had a great influence on the development of Russian ecclesiastical architecture. [23]
Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent Derbent, Dagestan,  Russia
Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
70009699999999999999.70 (24.0); buffer zone 2.00 (4.9) 2003 The Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent were part of the northern lines of the Sasanian Persian Empire, which extended east and west of the Caspian Sea. The fortification was built in stone. It consisted of two parallel walls that formed a barrier from the seashore up to the mountain. The town of Derbent was built between these two walls, and has retained part of its medieval fabric. The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. [24]
Churches of Moldavia Suceava County (Moldavia),  Romania
Cultural:
(i), (iv)
1993[nb 4] [25][26]
Churches of Peace in Jawor and Świdnica Jawor and Świdnica, Lower Silesian Voivodeship,  Poland
Cultural:
(iii), (iv), (vi)
69992300000000000000.23 (0.57); buffer zone 12 (30) 2001 The Churches of Peace in Jawor and Świdnica in Silesia were named after the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 which permitted the Lutherans in the Roman Catholic parts of Silesia to build three Evangelical churches from wood, loam and straw outside the city walls, without steeples and church bells. The construction time was limited to one year. [27]
Cracow's Historic Centre Kraków, Lesser Poland,  Poland
Cultural:
(iv)
7002150000000000000150 (370); buffer zone 1,057 (2,610) 1978[nb 5] Kraków Old Town is the historic central district of Kraków, Poland. It is one of the most famous old districts in Poland today and was the center of Poland's political life from 1038 until King Sigismund III Vasa relocated his court to Warsaw in 1596. The entire medieval old town is among the first sites chosen for the UNESCO's World Heritage List, inscribed as Cracow's Historic Centre. [28][29][30][31][32]
Cultural and Historic Ensemble of the Solovetsky Islands Arkhangelsk Oblast,  Russia
Cultural:
(iv)
700428834000000000028,834 (71,250) 1992 The Solovetsky archipelago comprises six islands in the western part of the White Sea, covering 300 km2. They have been inhabited since the 5th century B.C. and important traces of a human presence from as far back as the 5th millennium B.C. can be found there. The archipelago has been the site of fervent monastic activity since the 15th century, and there are several churches dating from the 16th to the 19th century. [33]
Curonian Spit Neringa and Klaipėda district, Klaipėda County,  Lithuania* and Zelenogradsky District, Kaliningrad Oblast,  Russia*
Cultural:
(v)
2000 Human habitation of this elongated sand dune peninsula, 98 km long and 0.4-4 km wide, dates back to prehistoric times. Throughout this period it has been threatened by the natural forces of wind and waves. Its survival to the present day has been made possible only as a result of ceaseless human efforts to combat the erosion of the Spit, dramatically illustrated by continuing stabilisation and reforestation projects. [34]
Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains Hunedoara and Alba Counties (Transylvania),  Romania
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
1999 Sarmizegetusa Regia was the capital and the most important military, religious and political centre of the Dacians. Erected on top of a 1,200 metre high mountain, the fortress was the core of the strategic defensive system in the Orăştie Mountains (in present-day Romania), comprising six citadels. Sarmizegetusa Regia was the capital of Dacia prior to the wars with the Roman Empire. [35]
Danube Delta Tulcea County (Dobruja),  Romania
Natural:
(vii), (x)
1999 [36]
Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs (Sopianae) Pécs, Baranya County,  Hungary
Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
70003760000000000003.76 (9.3) 2000 [37]
Ensemble of the Ferapontov Monastery Vologda Oblast,  Russia
Cultural:
(i), (iv)
2000 The Ferapontov Monastery, in the Vologda region in northern Russia, is an exceptionally well-preserved and complete example of a Russian Orthodox monastic complex of the 15th-17th centuries, a period of great significance in the development of the unified Russian state and its culture. The architecture of the monastery is outstanding in its inventiveness and purity. The interior is graced by the magnificent wall paintings of Dionisy, the greatest Russian artist of the end of the 15th century. [38]
Ensemble of the Novodevichy Convent Moscow,  Russia
Cultural:
(i), (iv), (vi)
70005180000000000005.18 (12.8); buffer zone 47 (120) 2004 The Novodevichy Convent, in south-western Moscow, built in the 16th and 17th centuries in the so-called Moscow Baroque style, was part of a chain of monastic ensembles that were integrated into the defence system of the city. The convent was directly associated with the political, cultural and religious history of Russia, and closely linked to the Moscow Kremlin. It was used by women of the Tsar’s family and the aristocracy. Members of the Tsar’s family and entourage were also buried in its cemetery. The convent provides an example of the highest accomplishments of Russian architecture with rich interiors and an important collection of paintings and artefacts. [39]
Fertö / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape Burgenland  Austria* and Győr-Moson-Sopron County,  Hungary*
Cultural:
(v)
700152000000000000052 (130); buffer zone 40 (99) 2001 [40]
Gardens and Castle at Kroměříž
Kroměříž, Zlín Region,  Czech Republic
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
700175000000000000075 (190); buffer zone 441 (1,090) 1998 [41]
Historic and Architectural Complex of the Kazan Kremlin Kazan, Tatarstan,  Russia
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
2000 Built on an ancient site, the Kazan Kremlin dates from the Muslim period of the Golden Horde and the Kazan Khanate. It was conquered by Ivan the Terrible in 1552 and became the Christian See of the Volga Land. The only surviving Tatar fortress in Russia and an important place of pilgrimage, the Kazan Kremlin consists of an outstanding group of historic buildings dating from the 16th to 19th centuries, integrating remains of earlier structures of the 10th to 16th centuries. [42]
Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments Saint Petersburg,  Russia
Cultural:
(i), (ii), (iv), (vi)
1990 The 'Venice of the North', with its numerous canals and more than 400 bridges, is the result of a vast urban project begun in 1703 under Peter the Great. Later known as Leningrad (in the former USSR), the city is closely associated with the October Revolution. Its architectural heritage reconciles the very different Baroque and pure neoclassical styles, as can be seen in the Admiralty, the Winter Palace, the Marble Palace and the Hermitage. [43]
Historical Centre of the City of Yaroslavl Yaroslavl, Yaroslavl Oblast,  Russia
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
2005 Situated at the confluence of the Volga and Kotorosl Rivers some 250 km north-east of Moscow, the historic city of Yaroslavl developed into a major commercial centre from the 11th century. It is renowned for its numerous 17th-century churches and is an outstanding example of the urban planning reform Empress Catherine the Great ordered for the whole of Russia in 1763. While keeping some of its significant historic structures, the town was renovated in the neoclassical style on a radial urban master plan. It has also kept elements from the 16th century in the Spassky Monastery, one of the oldest in the Upper Volga region, built on the site of a pagan temple in the late 12th century but reconstructed over time. [44]
Historic Centre of Český Krumlov
Český Krumlov, South Bohemian Region,  Czech Republic
Cultural:
(iv)
700152000000000000052 (130); buffer zone 1,073 (2,650) 1992 [45]
Historic Centre of Prague Prague,  Czech Republic
Cultural:
(ii), (iv), (vi)
7002866000000000000866 (2,140); buffer zone 8,963 (22,150) 1992 [46]
Historic Centre of Sighişoara
Sighișoara, Mureș County (Transylvania),  Romania
Cultural:
(iii), (v)
1999 [47]
Historic Centre of Telč Telč, Vysočina Region,  Czech Republic
Cultural:
(i), (iv)
700136000000000000036 (89); buffer zone 297 (730) 1992 [48]
Historic Centre of Warsaw Warsaw, Masovian Voivodeship,  Poland
Cultural:
(ii), (vi)
700126000000000000026 (64) 1980 Warsaw's Old Town was established in the 13th century. Initially surrounded by an earthwork rampart, prior to 1339 it was fortified with brick city walls. The town originally grew up around the castle of the Dukes of Mazovia that later became the Royal Castle. The Market Square (Rynek Starego Miasta) was laid out sometime in the late 13th or early 14th century, along the main road linking the castle with the New Town to the north. [49]
Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings Novgorod, Novgorod Oblast,  Russia
Cultural:
(ii), (iv), (vi)
1992 Situated on the ancient trade route between Central Asia and northern Europe, Novgorod was Russia's first capital in the 9th century. Surrounded by churches and monasteries, it was a centre for Orthodox spirituality as well as Russian architecture. Its medieval monuments and the 14th-century frescoes of Theophanes the Greek (Andrei Rublev's teacher) illustrate the development of its remarkable architecture and cultural creativity. [50]
Historic Town of Banská Štiavnica and the Technical Monuments in its Vicinity Banská Štiavnica and Banská Štiavnica District, Banská Bystrica Region,  Slovakia
Cultural:
(iv), (v)
700420632000000000020,632 (50,980); buffer zone 62,128 (153,520) 1993 [51]
Holašovice Historical Village Reservation Holašovice, Jankov, South Bohemian Region,  Czech Republic
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
700111000000000000011 (27); buffer zone 368 (910) 1998 [52]
Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc Olomouc, Olomouc Region,  Czech Republic
Cultural:
(i), (iv)
69982000000000000000.02 (0.049) 2000 [53]
Hortobágy National Park - the Puszta
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Heves, Hajdú-Bihar and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok Counties,  Hungary
Cultural:
(iv), (v)
1999 [54]
Jewish Quarter and St Procopius' Basilica in Třebíč Třebíč, Vysočina Region,  Czech Republic
Cultural:
(ii), (iii)
70005730000000000005.73 (14.2); buffer zone 143 (350) 2003 [55]
Kalwaria Zebrzydowska: the Mannerist Architectural and Park Landscape Complex and Pilgrimage Park Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, Lesser Poland,  Poland
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
1999 The town is named after the religious complex (calvary) founded by Governor of Kraków Mikołaj Zebrzydowski on December 1, 1602. The complex is known as the Kalwaria Zebrzydowska park. The city of Zebrzydów was established in 1617 in order to house the growing number of pilgrims visiting the religious complex. [56]
Kyiv: Saint-Sophia Cathedral and Related Monastic Buildings, Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra Kyiv,  Ukraine
Cultural:
(i), (ii), (iii), (iv)
700129000000000000029 (72); buffer zone 220 (540) 1990[nb 6] Saint Sophia Cathedral was a cathedral temple of Kyiv in 1037-1299. It is an outstanding architectural monument of Kyivan Rus'. The cathedral includes an ensemble of supporting structures such as a bell tower, the House of Metropolitan, and others. Kyiv Pechersk Lavra since its foundation as the cave monastery in 1051 has been a preeminent center of the Eastern Orthodox Christianity in Eastern Europe. [57][58]
Kizhi Pogost Medvezhyegorsky District, Republic of Karelia,  Russia
Cultural:
(i), (iv), (v)
1990 The pogost of Kizhi (i.e. the Kizhi enclosure) is located on one of the many islands in Lake Onega, in Karelia. Two 18th-century wooden churches, and an octagonal clock tower, also in wood and built in 1862, can be seen there. These unusual constructions, in which carpenters created a bold visionary architecture, perpetuate an ancient model of parish space and are in harmony with the surrounding landscape. [59]
Kremlin and Red Square, Moscow Moscow,  Russia
Cultural:
(i), (ii), (iv), (vi)
1990 Inextricably linked to all the most important historical and political events in Russia since the 13th century, the Kremlin (built between the 14th and 17th centuries by outstanding Russian and foreign architects) was the residence of the Great Prince and also a religious centre. At the foot of its ramparts, on Red Square, St Basil's Basilica is one of the most beautiful Russian Orthodox monuments. [60]
Kutná Hora: Historical Town Centre with the Church of St Barbara and the Cathedral of Our Lady at Sedlec
Kutná Hora and Kutná Hora District, Central Bohemian Region,  Czech Republic
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
700162000000000000062 (150); buffer zone 650 (1,600) 1995 [61]
Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape Břeclav District, South Moravian Region,  Czech Republic
Cultural:
(i), (ii), (iv)
700414320000000000014,320 (35,400) 1996 [62]
Levoča, Spišský Hrad and the Associated Cultural Monuments Prešov and Košice Regions,  Slovakia
Cultural:
(iv)
70031351000000000001,351 (3,340); buffer zone 12,581 (31,090) 1993[nb 7] [63]
Litomyšl Castle Litomyšl, Pardubice Region,  Czech Republic
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
1999 [64]
L'viv – the Ensemble of the Historic Centre Lviv, Lviv Oblast,  Ukraine
Cultural:
(ii), (v)
7002120000000000000120 (300); buffer zone 2,441 (6,030) 1998[nb 8] [65][66]
Madara Rider Madara, Shumen Province,  Bulgaria
Cultural:
(i), (iii)
70001200000000000001.20 (3.0); buffer zone 502 (1,240) 1979 [67]
Medieval Town of Toruń Toruń, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship,  Poland
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
700148000000000000048 (120); buffer zone 300 (740) 1997 Toruń has many monuments of architecture beginning from the Middle Ages, including 200 military structures. The city is famous for having preserved almost intact its medieval spatial layout and many Gothic buildings, all built from brick, including monumental churches, the Town Hall and many burgher houses. In 1236, due to frequent flooding, the city was relocated to the present site of the Old Town. In 1264 the nearby New Town was founded. In 1280, the city (or as it was then, both cities) joined the mercantile Hanseatic League, and thus became an important medieval trade centre. [68][69]
Millenary Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma and its Natural Environment Pannonhalma, Győr-Moson-Sopron County,  Hungary
Cultural:
(iv), (vi)
700147000000000000047 (120) 1996 [70]
Mir Castle Complex Karelichy, Grodno Region,  Belarus
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
2000 [71]
Monastery of Horezu Horezu, Vâlcea County (Wallachia),  Romania
Cultural:
(ii)
700122000000000000022 (54); buffer zone 57 (140) 1993 [72]
Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski Saxony,  Germany* and Lubusz Voivodeship,  Poland*
Cultural:
(i), (iv)
7002348000000000000348 (860); buffer zone 1,205 (2,980) 2004 [73]
Old City of Zamość Zamość, Lublin Voivodeship,  Poland
Cultural:
(iv)
700175000000000000075 (190); buffer zone 215 (530) 1992 Jan Zamoyski commissioned the Italian architect Bernardo Morando to design the city that would be based on the anthropomorphic concept. The main distinguishing features of the Old Town have been well preserved since its establishment. It includes the regular Great Market Square of 100 x 100 meters with the splendid Townhall and so-called Armenian houses, as well as the fragments of the original fortress and fortifications, including those from the period of the Russian occupation in the 19th century [74][75]
Old Village of Hollókő and its Surroundings Nógrád County,  Hungary
Cultural:
(v)
7002145000000000000145 (360) 1987 [76]
Pilgrimage Church of St John of Nepomuk at Zelená Hora
Žďár nad Sázavou, Vysočina Region,  Czech Republic
Cultural:
(iv)
69996400000000000000.64 (1.6); buffer zone 628 (1,550) 1994 [77]
Pirin National Park Pirin Mountains, Blagoevgrad Province,  Bulgaria
Natural:
(vii), (viii), (ix)
700438350000000000038,350 (94,800); buffer zone 1,078 (2,660) 1983[nb 9] [78]
Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Thuringia, Hesse,  Germany*, Prešov Region,  Slovakia* and Zakarpattia Oblast,  Ukraine*
Natural:
(ix)
2007[nb 10] [79][80]
Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans
Chernivtsi, Chernivtsi Oblast (Bukovina),  Ukraine
Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (iv)
70008000000000000008.00 (19.8); buffer zone 245 (610) 2011 [81]
Rila Monastery Rila, Kyustendil Province,  Bulgaria
Cultural:
(vi)
700111000000000000011 (27); buffer zone 1,290 (3,200) 1983 [82]
Rock-Hewn Churches of Ivanovo Ivanovo, Ruse Province,  Bulgaria
Cultural:
(i), (iii)
7002172000000000000172 (430) 1979 [83]
Srebarna Nature Reserve 150x Srebarna, Silistra Province,  Bulgaria
Natural:
(x)
7002638000000000000638 (1,580); buffer zone 673 (1,660) 1983[nb 11] The site had been listed as endangered 1999–2003 due to the prevention of seasonal flooding and agricultural use causing a decline or disappearance of the water and passerine bird populations. [84]
Struve Geodetic Arc  Belarus*,  Estonia*,  Finland*,  Latvia*,  Lithuania*,  Moldova*,  Norway*,  Russia*,  Sweden* and  Ukraine* Cultural:
(ii), (iii), (vi)
2005 The Struve Arc is a chain of survey triangulations stretching from Hammerfest in Norway to the Black Sea, through 10 countries and over 2,820 km. These are points of a survey, carried out between 1816 and 1855 by the astronomer Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve, which represented the first accurate measuring of a long segment of a meridian. This helped to establish the exact size and shape of the planet and marked an important step in the development of earth sciences and topographic mapping. It is an extraordinary example of scientific collaboration among scientists from different countries, and of collaboration between monarchs for a scientific cause. The original arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 main station points. The listed site includes 34 of the original station points, with different markings, i.e. a drilled hole in rock, iron cross, cairns, or built obelisks. [85]
Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak Kazanlak, Stara Zagora Province,  Bulgaria
Cultural:
(i), (iii), (iv)
69982000000000000000.02 (0.049); buffer zone 7.09 (17.5) 1979 [86]
Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari Sveshtari, Razgrad Province,  Bulgaria
Cultural:
(i), (iii)
7002648000000000000648 (1,600) 1985 [87]
Tokaj Wine Region Historic Cultural Landscape
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County,  Hungary
Cultural:
(iii), (v)
700413255000000000013,255 (32,750); buffer zone 74,879 (185,030) 2002 [88]
Tugendhat Villa in Brno Brno, South Moravian Region,  Czech Republic
Cultural:
(ii), (iv)
69997300000000000000.73 (1.8); buffer zone 2,825 (6,980) 2001 [89]
Villages with Fortified Churches in Transylvania Alba, Brașov, Harghita, Mureș and Sibiu counties (Transylvania),  Romania
Cultural:
(iv)
7002553000000000000553 (1,370); buffer zone 3,728 (9,210) 1993[nb 12] [90]
Virgin Komi Forests Komi Republic,  Russia
Natural:
(vii), (ix)
70063280000000000003,280,000 (8,100,000) 1995 The Virgin Komi Forests cover 3.28 million ha of tundra and mountain tundra in the Urals, as well as one of the most extensive areas of virgin boreal forest remaining in Europe. This vast area of conifers, aspens, birches, peat bogs, rivers and natural lakes has been monitored and studied for over 50 years. It provides valuable evidence of the natural processes affecting biodiversity in the taiga. [91]
Vlkolínec Ružomberok District, Žilina Region,  Slovakia
Cultural:
(iv), (v)
70004900000000000004.90 (12.1); buffer zone 321 (790) 1993 [92]
Western Caucasus Krasnodar Krai,  Russia
Natural:
(ix), (x)
7005298903000000000298,903 (738,610) 1999 The Western Caucasus, extending over 275,000 ha of the extreme western end of the Caucasus mountains and located 50 km north-east of the Black Sea, is one of the few large mountain areas of Europe that has not experienced significant human impact. Its subalpine and alpine pastures have only been grazed by wild animals, and its extensive tracts of undisturbed mountain forests, extending from the lowlands to the subalpine zone, are unique in Europe. The site has a great diversity of ecosystems, with important endemic plants and wildlife, and is the place of origin and reintroduction of the mountain subspecies of the European bison. [93]
White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal Vladimir and Suzdal, Vladimir Oblast,  Russia
Cultural:
(i), (ii), (iv)
1992 These two artistic centres in central Russia hold an important place in the country's architectural history. There are a number of magnificent 12th- and 13th-century public and religious buildings, above all the masterpieces of the Collegiate Church of St Demetrios and the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin. [94]
Wieliczka and Bochnia Royal Salt Mines Wieliczka, Lesser Poland,  Poland
Cultural:
(iv)
7002969000000000000969 (2,390); buffer zone 244 (600) 1978[nb 13] The Wieliczka Salt Mine, located in the town of Wieliczka in southern Poland, lies within the Kraków metropolitan area. The mine continuously produced table salt from the 13th century until 2007 as one of the world's oldest operating salt mines, for most of this time span being a part of the undertaking żupy krakowskie. It is believed to be the world's 14th-oldest company. The site had been listed as endangered 1989–1998 due to a humidity problem. [95][96][97][98]
Wooden Churches of Maramureş
Maramureș (Transylvania),  Romania
Cultural:
(iv)
1999 [99]
Wooden Churches of Southern Little Poland Lesser Poland Voivodeship and Podkarpackie Voivodeship,  Poland
Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
70008260000000000008.26 (20.4); buffer zone 242 (600) 2003 The wooden church style of the region originated in the late Medieval, the late sixteenth century, and began with Gothic ornament and polychrome detail, but because they were timber construction, the structure, general form, and feeling is entirely different from the gothic architecture or Polish Gothic (in stone or brick). [100]
Wooden Churches of the Slovak part of the Carpathian Mountain Area Košice, Banská Bystrica, Žilina and Prešov Regions,  Slovakia
Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
70002560000000000002.56 (6.3); buffer zone 90 (220) 2008 [101]
Wooden Tserkvas of the Carpathian Region in Poland and Ukraine  Poland* and  Ukraine*
Cultural:
(iii), (iv)
2013 [102]

Notes

  1. ^ Extended in 1992 to include the Belarussian part of the property and name change from Białowieża Forest to the present name.
  2. ^ Extended in 2002 to include Andrássy Avenue and the Millennium Underground and name change from Budapest, the Banks of the Danube and the Buda Castle Quarter to the present name.
  3. ^ Extended in 2000 to include the Dobšinská Ice Cave and modification of boundaries in 2008: increase of property at Esztramos Hill from 107.2 (265) to 195 (480) and establishment of a 28,000 (69,000) buffer zone on the Hungarian side.
  4. ^ Extended in 2010 to include Sucevița Monastery.
  5. ^ Addition of the buffer zone in 2010.
  6. ^ Increase in the size of the buffer zone of Saint-Sophia Cathedral by 6.63 (16.4) in 2005.
  7. ^ Extended in 2009 to include Levoča and the Work of Master Paul in Spiš and name change from Spišský Hrad and its associated cultural monuments to the present name.
  8. ^ Minor adjustment of the buffer to follow the boundary of the L’viv Historic Area in 2008.
  9. ^ Extended in 2010 in order to strengthen the integrity and management of the property.
  10. ^ Extended in 2011 to include the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany and name change from Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians to the present name.
  11. ^ Creation of the buffer zone in 2008.
  12. ^ The original site comprised only the village and church of Biertan. Extended in 1999 to include a total of seven churches and name change from Biertan and its fortified Church to the present name.
  13. ^ Minor modification of the buffer zone in 2008 to cover the area of the projection of the mine; Extented in 2013 to include Bochnia Salt Mine workings.

References

Notes
  1. ^ "Number of World Heritage Properties by region".  
  2. ^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". Geographical region and composition of each region.  
  3. ^ a b c "World Heritage List".  
  4. ^ "Number of World Heritage properties inscribed each Year".  
  5. ^ (PDF) Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Second Session, Final Report (Report). . Retrieved 8 September 2011.
  6. ^ a b "The Criteria for Selection".  
  7. ^ "World Heritage in Danger".  
  8. ^ "Decision - 28COM 15B.75".  
  9. ^ "Ancient City of Nessebar".  
  10. ^ "Ancient City of Tauric Chersonese and its Chora".  
  11. ^ "Architectural Ensemble of the Trinity Sergius Lavra in Sergiev Posad".  
  12. ^ "Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh".  
  13. ^ "Auschwitz Birkenau, German Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camp (1940–1945)".  
  14. ^ Krakowski, Shmuel (1998). "The Satellite Camps". In Gutman, Yisrael; Berenbaum, Michael. Anatomy of the Auschwitz death camp.  
  15. ^ "Bardejov".  
  16. ^ "Belovezhskaya Pushcha / Białowieża Forest".  
  17. ^ "Boyana Church".  
  18. ^ "Budapest, including the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter and Andrássy Avenue".  
  19. ^ "Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork".  
  20. ^ "Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst".  
  21. ^ "Decision - 32COM 8B.48 - Examination of nominations and minor modifications to the boundaries of naturel, mixed and cultural properties to the World Heritage List - Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst (HUNGARY / SLOVAKIA)".  
  22. ^ "Centennial Hall in Wrocław".  
  23. ^ "Church of the Ascension, Kolomenskoye".  
  24. ^ "Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent".  
  25. ^ "Churches of Moldavia".  
  26. ^ "Thirty-fourth session" (PDF). Report of the decisions adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010).  
  27. ^ "Churches of Peace in Jawor and Świdnica".  
  28. ^ "Cracow's Historic Centre".  
  29. ^ Ingrid Gustafson, ed. (2007). Let's Go: Eastern Europe (13, illustrated ed.). Macmillan. p. 444.  
  30. ^ "Properties inscribed on the World Heritage list, Poland".  
  31. ^ "2nd session of the Committee".  
  32. ^ "Thirty-fourth session" (PDF). 2010 Evaluations of Cultural Properties.  
  33. ^ "Cultural and Historic Ensemble of the Solovetsky Islands".  
  34. ^ "Curonian Spit".  
  35. ^ "Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains".  
  36. ^ "Danube Delta".  
  37. ^ "Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs (Sopianae)".  
  38. ^ "Ensemble of the Ferrapontov Monastery".  
  39. ^ "Ensemble of the Novodevichy Convent".  
  40. ^ "Fertö / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape".  
  41. ^ "Gardens and Castle at Kroměříž".  
  42. ^ "Historic and Architectural Complex of the Kazan Kremlin".  
  43. ^ "Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments".  
  44. ^ "Historical Centre of the City of Yaroslavl".  
  45. ^ "Historic Centre of Český Krumlov".  
  46. ^ "Historic Centre of Prague".  
  47. ^ "Historic Centre of Sighişoara".  
  48. ^ "Historic Centre of Telč".  
  49. ^ "Historic Centre of Warsaw".  
  50. ^ "Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings".  
  51. ^ "Historic Town of Banská Štiavnica and the Technical Monuments in its Vicinity".  
  52. ^ "Holašovice Historical Village Reservation".  
  53. ^ "Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc".  
  54. ^ "Hortobágy National Park - the Puszta".  
  55. ^ "Jewish Quarter and St Procopius' Basilica in Třebíč".  
  56. ^ "Kalwaria Zebrzydowska: the Mannerist Architectural and Park Landscape Complex and Pilgrimage Park".  
  57. ^ "Kyiv: Saint-Sophia Cathedral and Related Monastic Buildings, Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra".  
  58. ^ "Twenty-ninth Session" (PDF). Nominations of properties to the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger: Addendum: Attributes of properties proposed.  
  59. ^ "Kizhi Pogost".  
  60. ^ "Kremlin and Red Square, Moscow".  
  61. ^ "Kutná Hora: Historical Town Centre with the Church of St Barbara and the Cathedral of Our Lady at Sedlec".  
  62. ^ "Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape".  
  63. ^ "Levoča, Spišský Hrad and the Associated Cultural Monuments".  
  64. ^ "Litomyšl Castle".  
  65. ^ "L'viv – the Ensemble of the Historic Centre".  
  66. ^ "32nd ordinary session" (PDF). Evaluations of Cultural Properties.  
  67. ^ "Madara Rider".  
  68. ^ "Medieval Town of Toruń".  
  69. ^ Töppen, Max (1858). Historisch-comparative Geographie von Preussen: Nach den Quellen, Namentlich auch Archivalischen. J. Perthes. p. 167. Retrieved 2011-10-29. 
  70. ^ "Millenary Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma and its Natural Environment".  
  71. ^ "Mir Castle Complex".  
  72. ^ "Monastery of Horezu".  
  73. ^ "Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski".  
  74. ^ "Old City of Zamość".  
  75. ^ Kędziora, A. (2000). Encyklopedia miasta Zamościa [Encyclopedia of Zamośc town] (in Polish).  
  76. ^ "Old Village of Hollókő and its Surroundings".  
  77. ^ "Pilgrimage Church of St John of Nepomuk at Zelená Hora".  
  78. ^ "Pirin National Park".  
  79. ^ "Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany".  
  80. ^ "IUCN Evaluations of Nominations of Natural and Mixed Properties to the World Heritage List" (PDF).  
  81. ^ "Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans".  
  82. ^ "Rila Monastery".  
  83. ^ "Rock-Hewn Churches of Ivanovo".  
  84. ^ "Srebarna Nature Reserve".  
  85. ^ "Struve Geodetic Arc".  
  86. ^ "Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak".  
  87. ^ "Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari".  
  88. ^ "Tokaj Wine Region Historic Cultural Landscape".  
  89. ^ "Tugendhat Villa in Brno".  
  90. ^ "Villages with Fortified Churches in Transylvania".  
  91. ^ "Virgin Komi Forests".  
  92. ^ "Vlkolínec".  
  93. ^ "Western Caucasus".  
  94. ^ "White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal".  
  95. ^ "Wieliczka Salt Mine".  
  96. ^ "32nd session" (PDF). Evaluations of Cultural Properties.  
  97. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Thirteenth session" (PDF).  
  98. ^ "World Heritage Committee: Twenty-second session" (PDF).  
  99. ^ "Wooden Churches of Maramureş".  
  100. ^ "Wooden Churches of Southern Little Poland".  
  101. ^ "Wooden Churches of the Slovak part of the Carpathian Mountain Area".  
  102. ^ "Wooden Tserkvas of the Carpathian Region in Poland and Ukraine".  
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