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Nessun dorma

"Nessun dorma" (Italian: ; English: "None shall sleep")[1] is an aria from the final act of Giacomo Puccini's frequently performed opera Turandot and is one of the best-known tenor arias in all opera. It is sung by Calaf, il principe ignoto (the unknown prince), who falls in love at first sight with the beautiful but cold Princess Turandot. However, any man who wishes to wed Turandot must first answer her three riddles; if he fails, he will be beheaded. In the aria, Calaf expresses his triumphant assurance that he will win the princess.

Although "Nessun dorma" has long been a staple of operatic recitals, Luciano Pavarotti popularized the piece beyond the opera world in the 1990s. Both Pavarotti and Plácido Domingo released singles of the aria that charted in the United Kingdom,[2][3] and it appeared on the best selling classical album of all time, The Three Tenors in Concert.[4] Since that time, many crossover artists have performed and recorded it. It has also frequently appeared in movies and on television. Unusually for a classical piece, it has become a part of popular culture.


  • Context and analysis 1
  • Recordings 2
  • Cultural references and adaptations 3
    • Luciano Pavarotti 3.1
    • Crossover and adapted versions 3.2
    • In other media 3.3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Context and analysis

In the act before this aria, Calaf has correctly answered the three riddles put to all of Princess Turandot's prospective suitors. Nonetheless, she recoils at the thought of marriage to him. Calaf offers her another chance by challenging her to guess his name by dawn. (As he kneels before her, the Nessun dorma theme makes a first appearance, to his words, "Il mio nome non sai!") If she does so, she can execute him; but if she does not, she must marry him. The cruel and emotionally cold princess then decrees that none of her subjects shall sleep that night until his name is discovered. If they fail, all will be killed.

As the final act opens, it is now night. Calaf is alone in the moonlit palace gardens. In the distance, he hears Turandot's heralds proclaiming her command. His aria begins with an echo of their cry and a reflection on Princess Turandot:

Nessun dorma! Nessun dorma!
Tu pure, o Principessa,
nella tua fredda stanza,
guardi le stelle
che tremano d'amore, e di speranza!

None shall sleep! None shall sleep!
Even you, O Princess,
in your cold bedroom,
watch the stars
that tremble with love and with hope!

Ma il mio mistero è chiuso in me;
il nome mio nessun saprà!
No, No! Sulla tua bocca
lo dirò quando la luce splenderà!

But my secret is hidden within me;
none will know my name!
No, no! On your mouth
I will say it when the light shines!

Ed il mio bacio scioglierà
il silenzio che ti fa mia!

And my kiss will dissolve
the silence that makes you mine!

Just before the climactic end of the aria, a chorus of women is heard singing in the distance:

Il nome suo nessun saprà,
E noi dovrem, ahimè, morir, morir!

No one will know his name,
and we will have to, alas, die, die!

Calaf, now certain of victory, sings:

Dilegua, o notte!
Tramontate, stelle!
Tramontate, stelle!
All'alba vincerò!
Vincerò! Vincerò!

Vanish, o night!
Fade, you stars!
Fade, you stars!
At dawn, I will win!
I will win! I will win!

In performance, the final "Vincerò!" features a sustained B4,[5] followed by the final note, an A4 sustained even longer—although Puccini's score did not explicitly specify that either note be sustained.[6] In the original score, the B is written as an eighth note while the A is a whole note. Both are high notes in the tenor range. The only recording to follow Puccini's score exactly was the very first, sung by Gina Cigna and Francesco Merli, conducted by Franco Ghione.

In Alfano's completion of act 3, the "Nessun dorma" theme makes a final triumphal appearance at the end of the opera. The theme also makes a concluding reappearance in Luciano Berio's later completion (this having been an expressed intention of Puccini's), but in a more subdued orchestration.


Nessun dorma sung by some of the most famous interpreters of Calaf appear on the following compilation recordings. (For full-length recordings of the opera, see Turandot discography.)

Cultural references and adaptations

Luciano Pavarotti

"Nessun dorma" achieved pop status after Luciano Pavarotti's 1972 recording of it was used as the theme song of BBC television's coverage of the 1990 FIFA World Cup in Italy. It subsequently reached #2 on the UK Singles Chart.[7] Although Pavarotti rarely sang the role of Calaf on stage, Nessun dorma became his signature aria and a sporting anthem in its own right, especially for football.[7] Pavarotti notably sang the aria during the first Three Tenors concert on the eve of the 1990 World Cup final. For an encore, he performed the aria again, taking turns with José Carreras and Plácido Domingo (himself a popular Calaf at the Metropolitan Opera, La Scala, Royal Opera House, Liceu, Arena di Verona, and Teatro Real). The album of the concert achieved triple platinum record status in the United States alone[8] and went on to outsell all other classical recordings worldwide.[4] The number became a regular feature of subsequent Three Tenors concerts.

Pavarotti gave a rendition of "Nessun dorma" at his final performance, the finale of the Opening Ceremony of the 2006 Torino Winter Olympics, although it was later revealed that he had lip-synched the specially pre-recorded performance (at the time of his Winter Olympics appearance Pavarotti was physically incapable of performing as he was suffering from pancreatic cancer to which he succumbed the year following).[9] His Decca recording of the aria was played at his funeral during the flypast by the Italian Air Force.[10] In 2013, the track was certified gold by the Federation of the Italian Music Industry.[11]

Crossover and adapted versions

"Nessun dorma" (often in adapted versions of the score) as has been performed by many pop and crossover singers and instrumentalists.

In other media

Nessun dorma has been used in many films,[21] often appearing at a central moment in the film—sometimes with the aria's moment of

  • Mark D. Lew (1997). "'"Commentary on Symbolism, Poetry, and 'Nessun Dorma. 
  • "Nessun dorma" on YouTube, sung by Jussi Björling, 1944

External links

  1. ^  
  2. ^ "Official Charts (UK) - Luciano Pavarotti". 
  3. ^ "Official Charts (UK) - Placido Domingo". 
  4. ^ a b Classical Music Magazine, volume 17, p. 39 (1994). "And then there's the Three Tenors phenomenon: The London recording from the 1990 concert became the biggest-selling classical album of all time, having now topped 10-million units throughout the world..."
  5. ^ Note: this article uses scientific pitch notation; e.g., B4 is the B above Middle C
  6. ^ ),Nessun Dorma'Puccini scores' (musical and contextual analysis of National Review, July 23, 1990 (accessed 8 October 2007)
  7. ^ a b , September 7, 2007The Telegraph"Nessun Dorma put football back on map", (accessed 24 September 2015)
  8. ^ """American certifications – "Three Tenors, The.  
  9. ^ "Pavarotti, Revered Even When Lip-Synching", The New York Times, April 7, 2008] (accessed 7 April 2008)
  10. ^ BBC News coverage of Pavarotti's final performance (accessed 8 October 2007); BBC News coverage of Pavarotti's funeral (accessed 8 October 2007)
  11. ^ "Italian single certifications" (in Italian).   Select Online in the field Sezione. The certification will load automatically
  12. ^ The Recording Academy ( 40th Annual GRAMMY Awards. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  13. ^ Huizenga, Tom (28 January 2010). "Grammy's Most Memorable Performances". National Public Radio. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  14. ^ Carroll, Jim (10 September 2010). "On the record". The Irish Times. Retrieved via HighBeam Research 5 November 2014 (subscription required).
  15. ^ The Guardian (22 October 2009). "Antony Hegarty: Will sing for coffee". Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  16. ^ Perusse, Bernard, "Beck in a reflective mood", Ottawa Citizen, 17 April 2020
  17. ^ "Italia overview".  
  18. ^ "Chris Botti". 
  19. ^ Daly. Mike (2 March 1989). "Two of the Best – In One Week". The Age. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  20. ^
  21. ^ a b Blank, Christopher (13 October 2007). "High Note", Commercial Appeal
  22. ^ Stephen Holden, Eloquent Movies With Eloquent Soundtracks, The New York Times, January 30, 1994
  23. ^ LoBrutto, Vincent (2008). Martin Scorsese: A Biography, p. 293.Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-98705-1
  24. ^ Nelson Pressley, 'The Sea Inside': A Quest for Death, The Washington Post, December 17, 2004; Page C05
  25. ^ Gloria Goodale, 'Sum' signals change since 9/11, The Christian Science Monitor, May 31, 2002
  26. ^ Jay Carr, Barbra Streisand looks into her 'Mirror' and discovers she's still a funny girl, The Boston Globe, November 10, 1996. Retrieved via subscription 14 June 2008.
  27. ^ MacNab, Geoffrey. "Mission Impossible - Rogue Nation, movie review: Tom Cruise, 50, is still like a puppy in this relentless action soap opera". The Independent. Retrieved 5 September 2015. 
  28. ^ Maslin, Janet (24 September 1982). "Pavarotti in 'Giorgio'". The New York Times
  29. ^ Richard Corliss, Opera for The Inoperative, Time, May 2, 1988.


On Television it makes an appearence in The Flash Season 1, episode 11.

Nessun Dorma is also the title of a short film by Ken Russell included in the 1987 film Aria.[29] (Aria consists of ten segments by a variety of directors; each one features the director's visual accompaniment to arias and scenes from operas. The films have minimal or no dialogue, with most of the spoken content coming from the words of the aria itself.)


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