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Principense Creole

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Title: Principense Creole  
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Principense Creole

Native to São Tomé and Príncipe
Native speakers
200  (1999)[1]
Portuguese Creole
  • Afro-Portuguese Creole
    • Gulf of Guinea Creole
      • Principense
Language codes
ISO 639-3 pre
Glottolog prin1242[2]
Linguasphere 51-AAC-acb

The Principense language, called lunguyê ("language of the island") by its speakers, is a Portuguese creole spoken in a community of some four thousand people in São Tomé and Príncipe, specifically on the island of Príncipe (there are two Portuguese-based creoles on São Tomé, Angolar and São Tomense), according to a 1989 study.[3] Today it is mostly spoken by some elderly women (the Ethnologue entry lists 200 native speakers); most of the island's community speaks Portuguese; some also speak Forro.

Principense presents many similarities with the Forro on São Tomé and may be regarded as a Forro dialect. Like Forro, it is a creole language based on Portuguese with substrates of Bantu and Kwa.


  1. ^ Principense at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Principense". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Holm, John A. (1989). Pidgins and Creoles: Reference Survey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. p. 277.  

See also

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