World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Szekely

Article Id: WHEBN0000415481
Reproduction Date:

Title: Szekely  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Church (building), House, Samuel Baker, Sicels, Nogai Khan, Battle of Mirăslău, Dovecote, Early Modern Romania, Jasz people, Gemerský Sad
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Szekely

Not to be confused with Sicels, also called Siculi in Latin.

"Secui" redirects here. For the village in Dolj County, Romania, see Teasc. For other uses, see Székely (disambiguation).
Székelys
Sándor Kányádi •  • Sámuel Kálnoky
Total population

est. 500,000 – 700,000[1][2][3]


(only 532 of them declared themselves as Székelys at the 2011 Romanian census)[4]
Regions with significant populations
Romania (mostly in the counties of Harghita, Covasna and parts of Mureş), southern Hungary and the rest of the world
Languages
Hungarian
Religion
Predominantly Roman Catholic, with Hungarian Reformed and Unitarian minorities
Related ethnic groups
Hungarians
Part of a series on the
History of Hungary
Coat of arms of Hungary
Prehistory and early history
Middle Ages
Principality 895–1000
Medieval kingdom 1000–1526
Ottoman Wars 1366–1526
Early modern history
Habsburg kingdom 1526–1867
Eastern kingdom 1526–1570
Ottoman Hungary 1541–1699
Principality of Transylvania 1570–1711
Late modern period
Rákóczi's War 1703–1711
Revolution of 1848 1848–1849
Austria-Hungary 1867–1918
Lands of the Crown 1867–1918
World War I 1914–1918
Interwar period 1918–1941
Kingdom of Hungary 1920–1946
World War II 1941–1945
Contemporary history
Republic of Hungary 1946–1949
People's Republic 1949–1989
Revolution of 1956  
Republic of Hungary since 1989
By topic
Hungary portal

The Székelys or Székely (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈseːkɛj]), sometimes also referred to as Szeklers (Hungarian: Székelyek, Romanian: Secui, German: Szekler, Latin: Siculi), are a subgroup[5][6] of the Hungarian people living mostly in the Székely Land. A significant population descending from the Székelys of Bukovina lives in Tolna and Baranya counties in Hungary and in certain districts of Vojvodina, Serbia. In 1952 the former province of Mureş (with the highest concentration of Székely population) was legally designated as the Hungarian Autonomous Region. It was superseded in 1960 by the Mureş-Hungarian Autonomous Region, itself divided in 1968 into three non-autonomous districts, Harghita, Covasna and Mureş.[7]

In the Middle Ages, the Székelys, along with the Saxons, played a key role in the defense of the Kingdom of Hungary against the Ottomans[8] in their posture of guards of the eastern border. With the Treaty of Trianon of 1920, Transylvania (including the Székely Land) became part of Romania, and the Székely population was a target of Romanianization efforts.[9] In post-Cold War Romania, where the Székelys form roughly a half of the ethnic Hungarian population, members of the group have been among the most vocal of Hungarians seeking an autonomous Hungarian region in Transylvania.[10] They were estimated to number about 860,000 in the 1970s and are officially recognized as a distinct minority group by the Romanian government.[7] However, the Romanian government does not recognize the existence of a Székely Land.

Today's Székely Land roughly corresponds to the Romanian counties of Harghita, Covasna and central and eastern Mureş. Based on the official 2011 Romanian census, 1,237,276[11] ethnic Hungarians live in Romania, mostly in the region of Transylvania making 19.6% of the population of this region. Of these, 611,391 (according to the 2011 Romanian Census) live in the counties of Harghita, Covasna and Mureş, which taken together have a Hungarian majority (58%).[12] The Hungarians in Székely Land therefore account for half (49.41%) of the Hungarians in Romania. When given the choice on the 2011 Romanian census between ethnically identifying as Székely or as Hungarian, the overwhelming majority of the Székelys chose the latter. Only 532 persons declared themselves as ethnic Székely.[4]

History

The Székelys derive their name from a Hungarian expression meaning "frontier guards".[7] The Székely territories came under the leadership of the Count of the Székelys (Latin: Comes Siculorum), initially a royal appointee from the non-Székely Hungarian nobility who was de facto a margrave; from the 15th century onward, the voivodes of Transylvania held the office themselves. The Székelys were considered a distinct ethnic group (natio Siculica)[13] and formed part of the Unio Trium Nationum ("Union of Three Nations"), a coalition of three Transylvanian Estates, the other two "nations" being the (also predominantly Hungarian) nobility and the Saxon (that is, ethnic German) burghers. These three groups ruled Transylvania from 1438 onward, usually in harmony though sometimes in conflict with one another. During the Long War, the Székelys formed an alliance with Prince Michael the Brave of Wallachia against the army of Andrew Cardinal Báthory, recently appointed Prince of Transylvania.

Origins

The origin of the Székelys has been much debated. It is now generally accepted that they are descendants of Hungarians (or of Magyarized Turkic peoples) transplanted to the eastern Carpathians to guard the frontier, their name meaning simply "frontier guards".[7] The Székelys have historically claimed descent from Attila's Huns[7] (repeated in Procopius's De bello Gothico),[7] and believed they played a special role in shaping Hungary. Ancient legends recount that a contingent of Huns remained in Transylvania, later allying with the main Hungarian army that conquered the Carpathian Basin in the 9th century. The thirteenth-century chronicler Simon of Kéza also claimed that the Székely people descended from Huns who lived in mountainous lands prior to the Hungarian conquest.[14]

After the theory of Hunnic descent lost scholarly currency in the 20th century two substantial ideas emerged about Székely ancestry:[15]

  • Some scholars suggested that the Székelys were simply Magyars,[15] like other Hungarians, transplanted in the Middle Ages to guard the frontiers. Researches could not prove that Szeklers spoke a different language.[15] In this case, their strong cultural differences from other Hungarians stem from centuries of relative isolation in the mountains.
  • Others suggested Turkic origin as Avar, Kabar or Esegel-Bulgar ancestries.[15]

Some historians have dated the Székely presence in the Eastern Carpathians as early as the 5th century,[15] and found historical evidence that the Székelys were part of the Avar[10] confederation during the so-called Dark Ages, but this does not mean that they were ethnically Avar.

Researches indicate that Székelys undoubtedly spoke in Hungarian.[16] Toponyms at the Székely settlement area also give proof of their Hungarian mother tongue.[16] The Székely dialect does not have more Bulgaro-Turkish loan-words derived from before the Hungarian Conquest of the Carpathian Basin than standard Hungarian does.[16] Even if the Székelys had been a Turkic stock they had to lose their original vernacular at a very early date.[16]


Demographics

The Székely live mainly in Harghita, Covasna and Mureş counties. Hungarians form a majority of the population in the counties of Covasna and Harghita.

County Hungarians % of county population
Harghita 257,707 84.62%
Covasna 150.468 73.74%
Mureş 200,858 38.09%

The Székelys of Bukovina, today settled mostly in Vojvodina and southern Hungary, form a culturally separate group with its own history.

Autonomy

There were Székely autonomous regions from 1952–1968. First the Magyar Autonomous Region was created in 1952, later (1960) renamed Mureş-Magyar Autonomous Region. Ever since the abolition of the Mureş-Magyar Autonomous Region by the Ceauşescu regime in 1968, some of the Székely have pressed for their autonomy to be restored. Several proposals have been discussed within the Székely Hungarian community and by the Romanian majority. One of the Székely autonomy initiatives is based on the model of the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia.[17] A major peaceful demonstration was held in 2006 in favor of autonomy.[18]

Literature

Áron Tamási, a 20th-century Székely writer from Lupeni, wrote many novels about the Székely which set universal stories of love and self-individuation against the backdrop of Székely village culture. Other well-known Székely writers include the folklorist Elek Benedek, the novelist József Nyírő, the television and film writer Louis Székely and the poet Sándor Kányádi.

Symbols


The Sun and Moon are the symbols of the Székely, and are used in the coat of arms of Transylvania and on the Romanian national coat of arms. The Sun and the Moon, the symbols of the cosmic word, are known from Hungarian grave findings from the period of the Hungarian conquest.[20] After the Hungarians became Christians in the 11th century, the importance of these icons became purely visual and symbolic. The Székelys have succeeded in preserving traditions to an extent unusual even in Central and Eastern Europe. The most comprehensive description of the Székely Land and its traditions was written between 1859–1868 by Balázs Orbán in his Description of the Székely Land.

Image gallery

See also

Notes

References

Sources

  • Makkai, László (2001). Transylvania in the medieval Hungarian kingdom (896-1526), In: Béla Köpeczi, HISTORY OF TRANSYLVANIA Volume I. From the Beginnings to 1606, Columbia University Press, New York, 2001, ISBN 0880334797

External links

  • Encyclopedia 1911 Article
English
  • Minority Cultures: The Szeklers Tortured History
  • Ioan Aurel Pop, The Ethno-Confessional Structure of Medieval Transylvania and Hungary. Cluj Napoca, 1994 (bulletin of the Center for Transilvanian Studies, vol.III, nr.4, July 1994)
Hungarian
  • Székely history until 1848
Romanian
  • G.Popa Lisseanu, Originea secuilor si secuizarea romanilor, Editura Romania Pur si Simplu, Bucuresti, 2003

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.